Medical Journal of Indonesia <p><a href="">ABOUT JOURNAL</a> |&nbsp;<a href=";hl=en" target='_blank"'>CITATIONS</a> | <a href="">STATISTIC</a> | <a href="/journal/index.php/mji/submit">SUBMISSIONS</a>&nbsp;| <a href="/journal/index.php/mji/indexing">ABSTRACTING &amp; INDEXING</a></p> <hr> <p>This quarterly medical journal is an official scientific journal of the Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia in collaboration with German-Indonesian Medical Association (DIGM).</p> <p>Abstracted and indexed in:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EBSCO host</a>,&nbsp;<a title="ACI" href=";id=9" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ASEAN Citation Index</a>,&nbsp;<a title="BASE" href="*;refid=dclink" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BASE</a>,&nbsp;<a href=";letter=M#SerialsCited" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CAB Abstracts</a>,&nbsp;<a title="CiteFactor" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>,&nbsp;<a title="CNKI" href=";rt=Journal" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CNKI</a>, <a title="Dimensions" href="" target="blank">Dimensions</a>,&nbsp;<a href="{%22query%22:{%22query_string%22:{%22query%22:%22faculty%20of%20medicine%20universitas%20indonesia%22,%22default_field%22:%22index.publisher%22,%22default_operator%22:%22AND%22}}}" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>,&nbsp;<a href=";colors=7&amp;lang=en&amp;jq_type1=KT&amp;jq_term1=medical+journal+of+indonesia" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Electronic Journals Library</a>, <a title="Embase" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Embase</a>, <a title="ESCI" href=";Full=medical%20journal%20of%20indonesia" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ESCI</a>, <a title="GARUDA" href="" target="_self">GARUDA</a>,&nbsp;<a href=";letter=M#SerialsCited" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Global Health</a>,&nbsp;<a href=";btnG=&amp;hl=en&amp;as_sdt=0%2C5" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a>,&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Hinari</a>,&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">IMSEAR</a>,&nbsp;<a title="ISC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISC</a>,&nbsp;<a href=";subAction=pub&amp;publisherID=2793&amp;journalID=29425&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=1&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a>, <a title="Microsoft Academic" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Microsoft Academic</a>,&nbsp;<a title="PKP INDEX" href="">PKP index</a>, <a title="ProQuest" href=";productID=445&amp;productName=ProQuest+Health+%26+Medical+Complete&amp;IDString=445&amp;format=formatHTML&amp;issn=issn&amp;prflag=prflag&amp;cit=cit&amp;abs=abs&amp;pmid=pmid&amp;combined=combined" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Proquest</a>, <a title="Scilit" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scilit</a>,&nbsp;<a title="Scopus" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scopus</a>, <a title="SINTA" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SINTA</a>,&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ulrichsweb Global Serial Directory</a>,&nbsp;<a href=";fq=&amp;dblist=239&amp;se=%24d&amp;sd=desc&amp;fc=yr:_25&amp;qt=show_more_yr%3A&amp;cookie" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat</a>.</p> <p>Accredited (2016-2020) by the Directorate General of Research and Development Strengthening of the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia (No:21/E/KPT/2018).</p> Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia en-US Medical Journal of Indonesia 0853-1773 <p>Authors who publish with Medical Journal of Indonesia agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-GB">Authors retain copyright and grant Medical Journal of Indonesia right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a title="CC BY NC" href="" target="_self">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License</a> that allows others to remix, adapt, build upon the work non-commercially with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in Medical Journal of Indonesia.</span></li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted to copy and redistribute the journal's published version of the work non-commercially (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in Medical Journal of Indonesia.</li> </ol> Obesity in school-age children <p>[None]</p> Grace Wangge Copyright (c) 2019 Grace Wangge 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 28 2 101 2 10.13181/mji.v28i2.4079 Horseradish peroxidase-labeled rabbit anti-non-structural protein 1 of dengue virus-2 for the diagnosis of dengue virus infections <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV) infection is essential for patient management and disease control. Detection of the antigen non-structural protein 1 (NS1) has been proven to provide early diagnosis of DENV infection. Thus, commercial NS1 antigen detection assays have been increasingly used and are becoming the<br>tool of choice among clinicians to confirm DENV infection in Indonesia.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> To obtain anti-NS1 DENV antibody, NS1 protein (90 µg/ml) from the collection of the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia was injected into a rabbit. The anti-NS1 antibody from the rabbit was then labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) using the periodate oxidation method. Sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect NS1 from DENV-infected patients.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> Serially diluted antibody labeled with HRP tested using the direct ELISA method showed the highest absorbance value at a 1:100 dilution (Mean [SD] = 1.35 [0.35]); even at a dilution as high as 1:3,200 (0.22 [0.15]), antibody labeled with HRP was able to detect the NS1 protein, although the absorbance value did not differ greatly from that of the negative control (0.13 [0.01]).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> In an attempt to develop an NS1-based diagnostic test, polyclonal anti-NS1 DENV antibody was successfully produced as a diagnostic assay to determine the presence of DENV NS1 antigen in patients’ sera.</p> Evy Suryani Arodes Beti Ernawati Dewi Tjahjani Mirawati Sudiro Copyright (c) 2019 Evy Suryani Arodes, Beti Ernawati Dewi, Tjahjani Mirawati Sudiro 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 28 2 103 9 10.13181/mji.v28i2.1951 Decreased sensitivity of several anticancer drugs in TMEPAI knockout triple-negative breast cancer cells <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Transmembrane prostate androgen-induced protein (TMEPAI) was reported to be highly amplified in the majority of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). TMEPAI is related to poorer prognosis, limited treatment options, and prone to drug resistance compared with other proteins. One of the established markers to determine cancer resistance to drugs is the increased expression levels of drug efflux transporters. However, the role of TMEPAI in cancer resistance to drugs has not been elucidated. This study was aimed to investigate whether TMEPAI participates in cancer resistance to drugs by regulating drug efflux transporters.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> TMEPAI knockout (KO) cells were previously developed from a TNBC cell line, Hs578T (wild-type/WT), using a CRISPR-Cas9 system. The expression levels of drug efflux transporters were determined in Hs578T-KO and Hs578-WT by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Cytotoxic concentration 50% (CC50) of several anticancer drugs (doxorubicin, cisplatin, and paclitaxel) were determined in the two cell lines via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> The results showed that the mRNA expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) was significantly increased in Hs578T-KO compared with that in Hs578T-WT cells. CC50 of several anticancer drugs investigated (doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and cisplatin) in Hs578T-KO cells was higher than that in Hs678-WT.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> TMEPAI participated in the regulation of mRNA expression levels in drug efflux transporters (P-gp, BCRP, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1). Further studies are necessary to confirm whether this finding might be dependent on the development of cancer cell sensitivity to anticancer agents.</p> Bantari Wisynu Kusuma Wardhani Meidi Utami Puteri Yukihide Watanabe Melva Louisa Rianto Setiabudy Mitsuyasu Kato Copyright (c) 2019 Bantari WK Wardhani, Meidi U Puteri, Yukihide Watanabe, Melva Louisa, Rianto Setiabudy, Mitsuyasu Kato 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 28 2 110 5 10.13181/mji.v28i2.2687 The use of high-resolution melting techniques for mutation screening of diseases caused by trinucleotide repeats expansion, with emphasis on the <em> AR </em> gene <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Trinucleotide repeat expansion (TRE) diseases are genetic diseases caused by an increase in the number of CAG, CGG, and CTG codons. CAG repeat expansion in exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene is known to be associated with disorders of sex development (DSD) and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Because the traditional Southern blot for CAG repeat expansion is laborious and time-consuming, this study was aimed to use high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis to screen the CAG repeat length of the<em> AR</em> gene in Indonesian patients with DSD.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> In total, 30 male patients with DSD (46, XY), one male patient with SBMA, and 30 healthy males (control) were included in the study. The CAG repeat length was determined using HRM analysis, and Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the CAG repeat length.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> For the DSD cases and controls, the melting temperature (Tm) was within the normal range of 89–91.05°C; however, Tm was 92.65°C for the SBMA case. Sanger sequencing confirmed that DSD cases had 13–27 CAG repeats, and the SBMA case had 54 CAG repeats.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> HRM analysis using polymerase chain reaction is a sensitive, effective, and rapid technique for screening CAG repeat expansion in exon 1 of the AR gene. This is the first technique for <em>AR</em> gene screening that may be applicable to other TRE diseases.</p> Achmad Zulfa Juniarto Mahayu Dewi Ariani Stefani Harumsari Nurin Aisyiyah Listyasari Hardian Agustini Utari Sultana Muhammad Hussein Faradz Copyright (c) 2019 Mahayu Dewi Ariani, Stefani Harumsari, Nurin Aisyiyah Listyasari, Agustini Utari, Achmad Zulfa Juniarto, Sultana MH Faradz 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 28 2 116 22 10.13181/mji.v28i2.3008 Effects of low glycemic index diet on insulin resistance among obese adolescent with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Obesity is strongly correlated with insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Some studies suggest that dietary intake with low glycemic index (GI) may prevent IR and reduce the incidences of NAFLD. This study was aimed to determine the effects of low GI diet on IR among obese adolescents with NAFLD.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> This study was a randomized controlled trial conducted in two Junior<br>High Schools in Semarang, Indonesia. The subjects were 12–14 years obese students with NAFLD, which divided into intervention and control groups according to schools using block random allocation. The intervention group received nutrition education and lunch diet (low energy, low GI, and low fat); meanwhile, the control group only received nutrition education for 12 weeks. The biochemical evaluation included fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin levels. IR was assessed using homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> Thirty-two subjects were enrolled in this study, 16 of which were assigned to the intervention group and the other to the control group. After 12 weeks, the energy and carbohydrate intake reduced in the intervention group (p &lt; 0.05), FBG remained unchanged, and HOMA-IR increased (4.9 [3.7]–7.2 [3.5]) compared to the control group (6.4 [4.9]–5.5 [2.8]) (p &lt; 0.05). Meanwhile, within the control group, there were no significant differences in the energy and carbohydrate intake as well as biochemical variables.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> Low GI modification diet alone may not reduce IR in the obese<br>adolescents with NAFLD.</p> Agustini Utari Muhammad Saifulhaq Maududi Ninung Rose Diana Kusumawati Maria Mexitalia Copyright (c) 2019 M Saifulhaq Maududi, Agustini Utari, Ninung Rose Diana Kusumawati, Maria Mexitalia 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 28 2 123 8 10.13181/mji.v28i2.2496 Mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide as a biomarker of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with sepsis <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Releasing cytokine pro inflammation in patients with sepsis (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6) with other factors (mid regional pro atrial natriuretic peptide [MR-proANP] and TNF-α) will cause left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). This research aimed to prove MR-proANP as a biomarker of LVSD in sepsis, area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, cut-off point and probability of MR-proANP and TNF-α as a biomarker of LVSD.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> Non-experimental diagnostic test with cross sectional design and simple random sampling. Variable examined consisted of MR pro ANP, TNF-α and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). LVSD if LVEF was ≤45%. Statistical analysis using 2 × 2 table and receiver operating characteristic curve using SPSS 22 for window.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> There were examined 71 patients from November 2013 to March 2014 in tertiary ICU of Moewardi Hospital. There were 22 patients with mild sepsis (30.9%), 40 patients with severe sepsis (56.4%) and 9 patients with septic shock (12.7%). The AUC value of MR-proANP level was 0.84 (95% CI 0.73–0.95),<em> p</em> &lt; 0.001. Optimal cut off point was ≥225.95 pmol/l and diagnostic odd ratio (DOR) was 12.11. The AUC value of TNF-α level was 0.73 (95% CI 0.60–0.86), <em>p</em> &lt; 0.002. Optimal cut-off point was ≥7.36 pg/ml and DOR was 5.03. Multivariate analysis was resulted that MR-proANP was the best predictor of LVSD (AUC 0.78), and TNF-α (0.69).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> MR-proANP could be used as a biomarker and the best diagnostic predictor of LVSD.</p> Trisulo Wasyanto Guntur Hermawan Copyright (c) 2019 Trisulo Wasyanto, Guntur Hermawan 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 28 2 129 33 10.13181/mji.v28i2.1952 Correlation between pain assessment scale and neurovascular compression distance to the root exit zone in trigeminal neuralgia analysis using 3D CISS MRI sequence <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is primarily caused by neurovascular compression (NVC) at root exit zone (REZ) in cerebellopontine angle cistern. In some NVC cases, it was suspected that clinical symptoms may be correlated with the distance of trigeminal nerve root to vascular contact. Pain assessment scale (PAS) was the most common scale used to evaluate TN pain, therefore this study was conducted to analyze the correlation between PAS usingnumeric rating scale (NRS) and distance from the NVC to REZ location in patients with TN using 3D CISS MRI sequence.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, using secondary data of 32 patients, collected from Picture Archiving and Communication System from January 2013 to January 2016. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 20.0. Spearman <em>p</em>-value of &lt; 0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> A total of 32 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean (SD) distances from the NVC to the REZ were 2.1 (2.1), 2.31 (2.25), and 3.22 (2.63) mm on the shortest, medial, and lateral sides, respectively. The correlation coefficients (r) between the PAS value and the NVC distance in relation to the trigeminal nerve REZ were −0.39 (<em>p</em> = 0.021), −0.57 (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.01), and −0.57 (<em>p</em> = 0.294) on the shortest, lateral, and medial sides, respectively.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> PAS using the NRS instrument exhibited an inverse correlation to NVC distance to the REZ of the trigeminal nerve. Shorter distance increased the PAS value.</p> Harry Topan Rahmad Mulyadi Setyo Widi Nugroho Joedo Prihartono Copyright (c) 2019 Rahmad Mulyadi, Harry Topan, Setyo Widi Nugroho, Joedo Prihartono 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 28 2 134 40 10.13181/mji.v28i2.1796 Activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) as a predictor of radiation therapy outcome in patients with stage IIIB squamous cell carcinoma cervical cancer <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Radiation is a standard therapy for cervical cancer. Unfortunately, not all patients undergoing radiation achieve a complete response. Previous studies have shown that manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) acts against free radicals generated by radiation in cancer cells thus predicting worse outcome in radiation therapy. This study was aimed to assess and evaluate whether MnSOD activity can be used as a predictor of radiation therapy responses in patients with stage IIIB squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in the Gynecology Oncology Division, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. The database from previous research was analyzed to identify positive and negative response samples. Measurement of MnSOD activity was done using spectrophotometry based on the McCord and Fridovich method using RanSOD® kit. The comparative data were obtained and then analyzed.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> Among 76 samples, 49 (61.8%) patients had positive responses and 27 (38.2%) had negative responses. It is shown in this study that higher MnSOD activity is related to worse radiotherapy outcome in stage IIIB cancer patients. The relative risk value of having a worse outcome with high MnSOD activity is 1.849 (1.075–3.178, 95% CI).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> Stage IIIB squamous cell carcinoma patients with high MnSOD activity are at higher risk of having a negative radiation therapy response compared with patients without high MnSOD activity.</p> Fitriyadi Kusuma Romi Saut Halomoan Sinaga Ani Retno Prijanti Aria Kekalih Sri Mulya Sekarutami Copyright (c) 2019 Fitriyadi Kusuma, Romi SH Sinaga, Ani Retno Prijanti, Aria Kekalih, Sri Mulya Sekarutami 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 28 2 141 5 10.13181/mji.v28i2.2929 Urodynamic profile in the Department of Urology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital Between 2010 and 2015 <p><strong>BACKGROUND </strong>This study was aimed to describe urodynamic profiles, the role and advantages of urodynamics for urinary problems detection, and to analyze whether urodynamic examination has been ordered based on accurate indications following guidelines in the Department of Urology Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital between 2010 and 2015.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>METHODS </strong>Data was retrieved from the patient’s medical records who underwent urodynamic examinations in the Department of Urology Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital between July 2010 to August 2015.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>1,091 patients undergone urodynamic procedures in the Department of Urology Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. In 553 lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) patients, there were 186 (34%) small bladder capacity, 84 (15%) detrusor overactivity (DO), 180 (33%) bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), and 198 (36%) bladder atony patients. In the 317 urinary retention patients, there were 121 (38%) patients with BOO and 2 (1%) patients with a normal voiding phase. In 80 overactive bladder patients, there were 51 (64%) with DO, 17 (21%) with DO incontinence, and 22 (28%) with urodynamic stress incontinence (SI). Among 81 patients with SI problems, there were 63 (78%) urodynamic SI, 9 (11%) DO, and 9 (11%) DO incontinence patients. In 60 (6%) pediatric patients, most LUTS and urinary retention patients were caused by impaired bladder contraction.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS </strong>This study shows the role and superiority of urodynamics in diagnosing patients with voiding disorders, especially if with mixed components in it. Urodynamics played essential roles in detecting urinary problems at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital.</p> Angling Yunanto Harrina Erlianti Rahardjo Copyright (c) 2019 Angling Yunanto, Harrina Erlianti Rahardjo 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 28 2 146 53 10.13181/mji.v28i2.1666 Poor diagnostic values of stool analysis and steatocrit test in detecting exocrine pancreatic insufficiency <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is one of the most challenging cases to be diagnosed accurately in Indonesia because of the unavailability of the fecal elastase-1 (FE-1) test, which is the primary indirect diagnostic tool till date. Stool analysis and steatocrit test are feasible alternatives as they can detect nutrient malabsorption, a consistent feature in EPI. Despite the common practice of using both tests, no study has ever been conducted in Indonesia to evaluate their accuracy.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> This cross-sectional diagnostic study was conducted in 182 children aged 6–60 months. Study subjects were divided into children with persistent diarrhea (PD), those with malnutrition, and healthy children. Children with PD and malnutrition were selected on the basis of clinical criteria and the WHO z-score. FE-1 test was used as the gold standard to detect EPI. Primary endpoints of this study were sensitivity and specificity of the stool analysis and the steatocrit test. The accuracy of both tests, represented by area under the curve (AUC) values, was also evaluated individually and in combination.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> Each component of stool analysis and steatocrit test in each subgroup of patients generally had higher specificity than sensitivity. The specificity of both tests among healthy and malnourished children was good (≥70%), but among children with PD, the specificity of some components was &lt;70%. The individual and combined AUC values of both tests in each subgroup of subjects were poor (&lt;0.7).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> Stool analysis and steatocrit test cannot be used as alternative methods for FE-1 to detect EPI.</p> Ariani Dewi Widodo Ina Susianti Timan Saptawati Bardosono Minarma Siagian Widdy Winarta Dwi Prasetyo Agus Firmansyah Copyright (c) 2019 Ariani Dewi Widodo, Ina S Timan, Saptawati Bardosono, Widdy Winarta, Agus Firmansyah 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 28 2 154 61 10.13181/mji.v28i2.1690 Knowledge of Ebola virus disease among students at AIMST University, Kedah, Malaysia <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> To assess the level of knowledge of Ebola virus disease (EVD) among students at The Asian Institute of Medical, Science and Technology (AIMST) University.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> This research is a cross-sectional study of 250 year-1 to year-4 students selected through the stratified sampling method from five health science faculties at AIMST University. Independent variables included students’ age, gender, faculty of origin, source of information, and participation in seminars or conferences, while the dependent variable was the students’ knowledge of EVD. Data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> The majority of the students did not have adequate knowledge of EVD (77.2%). The level of knowledge of EVD was significantly associated with faculty of origin (<em>p</em> = 0.014) only and not associated with other variables, such as sociodemographic factors, source of information, and participation in seminars or conferences.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> Information on EVD needs to be disseminated more intensively among university students due to the current lack of knowledge of the disease.</p> Lely Lubna Alaydrus Nurul Atikah Binti Mohamed Hanaphi Nur Anisa Binti Mohamed Haniffah Nurulain Binti Sukeri Liling Chaw Lin Naing Copyright (c) 2019 LELY LUBNA ALAYDRUS, Nurul Atikah Binti Mohamed Hanaphi, Nur Anisa Binti Mohamed Haniffah, Nurulain Binti Sukeri, Lin Naing, Liling Chaw 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 28 2 162 6 10.13181/mji.v28i2.2441 Association between obesity and sleep disorders in primary school children: a cross-sectional study <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> The prevalence of obesity in primary school children in Jakarta has reached 14% in 2013. Among many disorders, obesity can cause sleep disorders. However, sleep disorders in children are often overlooked by parents, even though they can cause physical, social, and psychological impacts. Therefore, it is necessary to find the association between obesity and sleep disorders in primary school children.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> This cross-sectional study was performed between July–September 2015 on 107 children attending Menteng 01 Primary School, Jakarta. Children's weight and height were measured and then their parents filled out the brief infant sleep questionnaire (BISQ). The collected data were analyzed using chi-square.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> In this study, 20.6% of the children were obese, which was higher than the prevalence of obesity in Jakarta. Meanwhile, sleep disorders occurred in 62.6% of children. Data about children’s sleep habits and parents’ opinion about their children’s sleep were obtained. It showed that snoring and parents’ opinion about sleep disorders were factors associated with children’s sleep disorder. Statistical analysis also showed a significant association between obesity and sleep disorders in children (<em>p</em> = 0.037).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> The incidence of obesity in primary school children is high and is associated with sleep disorders.</p> Thong Felicia Melinda Rini Sekartini Copyright (c) 2019 Thong Felicia Melinda, Rini Sekartini 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 28 2 167 73 10.13181/mji.v28i2.2645 Risk factor mapping and case map of environmentally based disease in Yogyakarta <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> A geographic information system (GIS) is required to guide interventions into prevent ARI and reduce the incidence of cases. The purpose of this study is to find out whether there is spatial autocorrelation in the spread of ARI; to obtain spatial information about the ARI risk factors, the ARI case map, and the factors related to the occurrence of ARI.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> This study is a quantitative research study with case-control study design.The sampling technique was purposive sampling. Spatial analysis techniques used were buffers and spatial clustering. The measurement of spatial autocorrelation was calculated by Moran’s Index method.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> The risk factors for ARI based on the history of ARI disease were cough and cold in the last one year, and cough and cold lasting more than two weeks (OR = 15.691; 95% CI = 6.558–37.546 and OR = 6.645; 95% CI = 3.013–14.652). The risk factors for ARI based on the house physical environment were the room density, existence of glass windows on the house roof, electricity as a light source, presence of family members who smoke, and proximity to pollution exposure and waste disposal. Moran's Index value shows positive spatial autocorrelation.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> GIS produces ARI distribution patterns. Based on the results of the cluster, the incidence of ARI cases in this region are interrelated or one case with another case is closely related, due to its close position.</p> Hariza Adnani Achmad Arman Subiyanto Diffah Hanim Endang Sutisna Sulaeman Copyright (c) 2019 Hariza Adnani, AA Subiyanto, Diffah Hanim, Endang S Sulaeman 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 28 2 174 82 10.13181/mji.v28i2.3093 Anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion in a 7-year-old boy: a case report <p>Bicycle mishap, a common and ordinary event occurring in children, can have devastating consequences associated with cervical spine injury. Furthermore, either diagnosis or surgical management of cervical spine injury in children is a challenging issue. This research report a challenging case of an anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion with plating in a 7-year-old boy due to cervical spine instability with spinal cord compression after a bicycle mishap. After 20 months of the primary surgery, the titanium-based cervical plate was removed by a second surgery to allow the growth of the cervical spine.</p> Mohamad Saekhu Samsul Ashari David Tandian Setyo Widi Nugroho Copyright (c) 2019 Mohamad Saekhu, Samsul Ashari, David Tandian, Setyowidi Nugroho 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 28 2 183 7 10.13181/mji.v28i2.2673 Recent evidence on modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC): a systematic synopsis of meta-analyses from 2015 to 2017 <p>Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer with a huge impact on international public health. This review discusses recent evidence on modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for CRC using a systematic review method. This systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines on systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies. The literature search was performed on the Ovid MEDLINE database and included publications from 2015 to 2017, followed by a quality assessment and a narrative synthesis. Of the 90 identified articles, there were 13 meta-analyses with statistically significant results. Seven articles discussed modifiable risk factors and six articles discussed non-modifiable risk. The modifiable risk factors with the highest risk were radiotherapy of prostate cancer (pooled odds ratio 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33–2.12). The non-modifiable risk factors with the highest risk was Lynch syndrome (hazard ratio 135.49; 95% CI 111.55–164.57). This review discovered new and previously known risk factors for CRC. Recent evidence shows that research on CRC risk factors is continuing to grow indicating that more studies on risk factors are needed to optimize CRC prevention and early detection.</p> Teguh Kristian Perdamaian Copyright (c) 2019 Teguh Kristian Perdamaian 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 28 2 188 95 10.13181/mji.v28i2.2679 Detection of Surra (trypanosomiasis) positivity in humans in an outbreak area of Indonesia <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Surra is an infection caused by a blood protozoan parasite, <em>Trypanosoma evansi</em>, and transmitted by blood-sucking insects. The parasite generally infects only animals; however, it was reported to infect an Indian cattle farmer in 2004, followed by reports of other human cases. The most severe Surra outbreak in Indonesia occurred in Sumba Island during 2010–2012, resulting in the death of more than 2,000 livestock. This study was conducted to explore the serological status of farmers who have intensive contact with their livestock against <em>T. evansi</em> infection in Southwest Sumba district.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> A total of 24 serum samples were collected from farmers living in the Surra outbreak area. All sera were tested using both card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis/<em>T. evansi</em> (CATT/<em>T. evansi</em>) and field enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FELISA).</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> Of the 24 serum samples, 4 (16.7%) samples were seropositive for the antigen <em>T. evansi</em> using both tests. This is the first report of human trypanosomiasis (Surra) in Indonesia. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of farmers with positive Surra infection were not reported because all sera samples used in this study were obtained from the Public Health Service with no reports of clinical signs from the respondents.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> Farmers living in the Surra outbreak area have a high risk of being infected with <em>T. evansi</em> due to their potential frequent contact with Surra vectors. Therefore, <em>T. evansi</em> infection in humans requires attention as it might have the potential to develop as a new emerging zoonotic disease in Indonesia.</p> Dyah Haryuningtyas Sawitri April Hari Wardhana Mohamad Sadikin Heri Wibowo Copyright (c) 2019 Dyah Haryuningtyas Sawitri 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 28 2 196 202 10.13181/mji.v28i2.1767 Erratum: Daily consumption of growing-up milk is associated with less stunting among Indonesian toddlers <p>[This corrects the article DOI: <a href="">10.13181/mji.v28i1.2607</a>]</p> Damayanti Rusli Sjarif Klara Yuliarti William Jayadi Iskandar Copyright (c) 2019 Damayanti Rusli Sjarif, Klara Yuliarti, William Jayadi Iskandar 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 28 2 203 203 10.13181/mji.v28i2.4090