Medical Journal of Indonesia <p><a href="">ABOUT JOURNAL</a> | <a href=";hl=en" target="_blank&quot;">CITATIONS</a> | <a href="">STATISTIC</a> | <a href="/journal/index.php/mji/submit">SUBMISSIONS</a> | <a href="/journal/index.php/mji/indexing">ABSTRACTING &amp; INDEXING</a></p> <hr> <p>This quarterly medical journal is an official scientific journal of the Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia in collaboration with German-Indonesian Medical Association (DIGM).</p> <p>Abstracted and indexed in: <a title="EBSCO host" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EBSCO host</a>, <a title="ACI" href=";id=9" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ASEAN Citation Index</a>, <a title="BASE" href="*;refid=dclink" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BASE</a>, <a title="CABI" href=";letter=M#SerialsCited" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CABI</a>, <a title="CiteFactor" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a>, <a title="CNKI" href=";rt=Journal" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CNKI</a>, <a title="Crossref" href=";publication=Medical+Journal+of+Indonesia" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> Crossref </a>, <a title="Dimensions" href="" target="blank">Dimensions</a>, <a title="DOAJ" href="{%22query%22:{%22query_string%22:{%22query%22:%22faculty%20of%20medicine%20universitas%20indonesia%22,%22default_field%22:%22index.publisher%22,%22default_operator%22:%22AND%22}}}" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a title="Electronic Journals Library" href=";colors=7&amp;lang=en&amp;jq_type1=KT&amp;jq_term1=medical+journal+of+indonesia" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Electronic Journals Library</a>, <a title="Embase" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Embase</a>, <a title="ESCI" href=";Full=medical%20journal%20of%20indonesia" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ESCI</a>, <a title="GARUDA" href="" target="_self">GARUDA</a>, <a title="Google Scholar" href=";btnG=&amp;hl=en&amp;as_sdt=0%2C5" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a>, <a title="Hinari" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Hinari</a>, <a title="IMSEAR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">IMSEAR</a>, <a title="ISC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISC</a>, <a title="J-Gate" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> J-Gate </a>, <a title="JournalTOCs" href=";subAction=pub&amp;publisherID=2793&amp;journalID=29425&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=1&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a>, <a title="Microsoft Academic" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Microsoft Academic</a>, <a title="MENDELEY" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> MENDELEY </a>, <a title="PKP INDEX" href="">PKP index</a>, <a title="ProQuest" href=";productID=445&amp;productName=ProQuest+Health+%26+Medical+Complete&amp;IDString=445&amp;format=formatHTML&amp;issn=issn&amp;prflag=prflag&amp;cit=cit&amp;abs=abs&amp;pmid=pmid&amp;combined=combined" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Proquest</a>, <a title="ROAD" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> ROAD </a>, <a title="Scilit" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scilit</a>, <a title="Scopus" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scopus</a>, <a title="SINTA" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SINTA</a>, <a title="Ulrichsweb Global Serial Directory" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ulrichsweb Global Serial Directory</a>, <a title="WorldCat" href=";fq=&amp;dblist=239&amp;se=%24d&amp;sd=desc&amp;fc=yr:_25&amp;qt=show_more_yr%3A&amp;cookie" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat</a>.</p> <p>Accredited (2016-2020) by the Directorate General of Research and Development Strengthening of the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia (No:21/E/KPT/2018).</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with Medical Journal of Indonesia agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show"><span lang="EN-GB">Authors retain copyright and grant Medical Journal of Indonesia right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a title="CC BY NC" href="" target="_self">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License</a> that allows others to remix, adapt, build upon the work non-commercially with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in Medical Journal of Indonesia.</span></li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted to copy and redistribute the journal's published version of the work non-commercially (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in Medical Journal of Indonesia.</li> </ol> (Med J Indones) (Novi) Mon, 05 Oct 2020 17:08:43 +0700 OJS 60 The scientist challenge from COVID-19 <p>[No abstract available]</p> Grace Wangge Copyright (c) 2020 Grace Wangge Mon, 05 Oct 2020 14:02:02 +0700 β-endorphin response to aerobic and anaerobic exercises in Wistar male rats <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Physical exercise is strongly associated with the release of β-endorphin. It is assumed that the type and intensity of physical exercise contributes to the release of β-endorphin. This study aimed to compare levels of β-endorphin in brain tissue in response to aerobic and anaerobic physical exercise.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> This study was an experimental laboratory study using 35 male Wistar rats divided into one control group and two physical exercise treatment groups: aerobic and anaerobic. Physical exercise was conducted on an animal treadmill running at aspeed of 20 m/min for 30 min of aerobic exercise and 35 m/min with 1-min intervals every 5 min for 20 min for anaerobic exercises. Each aerobic and anaerobic exercise group was furtherly classified into three subgroups (1×/week, 3×/week, and 7×/week). β-endorphin levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The data were analyzed using independent <em>t</em>-test and one-way analysis of variance.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> The highest mean of β-endorphin level was found in the weekly exercise (54.45 [1.41] pg/ml) of aerobic exercise group and daily exercise (70.50 [11.67] pg/ml) of anaerobic exercise group. Mean of β-endorphin level in control group was 33.34 (3.54) pg/ml. A significant increased of β-endorphin mean level (<em>p</em>&lt;0.001) was found in all aerobic and anaerobic exercise groups except the aerobic exercise 7×/week group<br>(37.37 [6.30] pg/ml) compared to control.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> Both aerobic and anaerobic physical exercise conducted for 6 weeks could increase the level of β-endorphin in brain tissue.</p> Rostika Flora, Mohammad Zulkarnain, Sukirno Copyright (c) 2020 rostika flora, Mohammad Zulkarnain, Sukirno Sukirno Mon, 05 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0700 IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and MIF in relative adrenal insufficiency in septic shock: a piglet model <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Inflammatory mediators released during septic shock are involved in the mechanism of adrenal insufficiency. This study investigated the role of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in septic shock with relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI).</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> We conducted a 6-month experimental study in 20 piglets. Following endotoxin administration, their hemodynamics were monitored and blood samples were drawn to test the levels of cytokines IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and MIF every 15 min until septic shock onset as well as during a corticotropin stimulation test. Septic shock was managed by administering fluid resuscitation, inotropic drugs, and hydrocortisone. At the end of the study, the piglet models were classified as either RAI or non-RAI. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed on the hypothalamus of the RAI group.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> The level of IL-6 at 45 min was higher in the RAI group than the non-RAI group (<em>p</em> = 0.008), and that of IL-1 was similar in the two groups during septic shock. The RAI group had higher TNF-α levels at 15 min (<em>p</em> = 0.002) and at 30 min (<em>p</em> = 0.007) than the non-RAI group, and the MIF level during septic shock was higher in the RAI group (<em>p</em> = 0.003) than the non-RAI group.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> Cytokine-induced inflammatory process of adrenal gland reflected in TNF-α level in 15 min and 30 min, IL-6 in 45 min, and MIF in septic shock condition but not in IL-1.</p> Bina Akura, Jose R. L. Batubara, Zakiudin Munasir, Gunanti, Joedo Prihartono, Hindra Irawan Satari, Suzanna Immanuel, Dadang Hudaya Somasetia Copyright (c) 2020 Bina Akura Mon, 05 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Infectivity and viability of dengue virus infected hepatocytes cocultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a healthy subject <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Dengue virus (DENV) can infect and replicate in monocytes, resulting in antibody-dependent enhancement. The liver is the main target of DENV, and the infection mechanisms of DENV include direct cytopathic effects (CPEs) of the virus, mitochondrial dysfunction, and effect of cellular and humoral immune factors in the liver. This study was aimed to explore the infectivity of DENV and viability of human hepatocytes using Huh 7it-1 cells cocultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> Huh 7it-1 cells were infected with dengue virus serotype-2 (DENV-2) New Guinea C strain at multiplicity of infection of 0.5 and 1 FFU/cell, and cocultured <em>in vitro</em> with and without adherent PBMCs. The infectivity of DENV was assessed by immunoperoxidase staining. The viability of Huh 7it-1 cells was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT, a tetrazole) assay and trypan blue staining. Data were statistically analyzed by Shapiro–Wilk and analysis of variance for normality significances.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> The result showed that addition of PBMCs to DENV-2 infected Huh 7it-1 cells decreased the infectivity of DENV (15–37%). DENV-2 infection decreased the viability of Huh 7it-1 cells (15.5–20.8%). Despite the decrease in infectivity of DENV, the addition of PBMCs increased the Huh 7it-1 cells viability (4.5–10.2%).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> Addition of PBMCs to Huh 7it-1 cells that are infected with DENV-2 decreased the infectivity of DENV and increased Huh 7it-1 cells viability.</p> Sekar Asri Tresnaningtyas, Fithriyah Sjatha, Beti Ernawati Dewi Copyright (c) 2020 Sekar Asri Tresnaningtyas, Beti Ernawati Dewi, Fithriyah Sjatha Mon, 05 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Comparison of complications between transcatheter and surgical ventricle septal defect closure: a single-center cohort study <p><strong>BACKGROUND </strong>Some ventricular septal defects (VSDs) require an interventional procedure for closure. Transcatheter and surgical closures of VSD have similar effectiveness, but transcatheter VSD closure is considered associated with less complication than surgical closure. This study aimed to compare mid-term or long-term complications of transcatheter and surgical VSD closures.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> This was a retrospective cohort study compared the complication rates of transcatheter and surgical VSD closures performed in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital from January 1, 2010, to April 30, 2017, with 34 subjects in each group. The inclusion criteria were as follows: single lesion outlet perimembranous or doubly committed subarterial VSD, age 2–18 years, body weight &gt;8 kg, and no arrhythmia. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were done to collect primary data. Other data were collected from medical records. Mid-term complications occurred 1–24 months after interventional closure. Long-term complications occurred 24 months after interventional closure. Complications were arrhythmia, valve regurgitation, and residual shunt. Data were analyzed by chi-square test.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>The rate of worsening valve regurgitation was higher in the transcatheter group than in the surgical group (16 <em>versus</em> 11, <em>p</em> = 0.322). The number of patients with residual shunts were similar between the transcatheter group and surgical group (5 <em>versus</em> 5; <em>p</em> = 1.000). Both complications were found in mid- and long-term. Arrhythmia as a long-term complication occurred in five and seven patients in the transcatheter and surgical groups, respectively (<em>p</em> = 0.752).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> Transcatheter and surgical VSD closures have similar mid or long-term complications.</p> Deny Salverra Yosy, Mulyadi Muhammad Djer, Sukman Tulus Putra Copyright (c) 2020 Deny Salverra Yosy, Mulyadi M. Djer, Sukman Tulus Putra Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0700 A randomized controlled clinical trial of carbohydrate mix-fortified nutrition in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Liquid meal replacement nutrition (LMRN) contains low glycemic index food (isomaltulose, resistant dextrin, and inulin), which can decrease large blood glucose level fluctuations and reduce food intake. This study aimed to determine the stability of daily blood glucose and the level of appetite sensations after intake of LMRN in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> This randomized, controlled, crossover, and open-labeled study included 30 subjects with type 2 DM. Subjects attended two visit sessions to consume either LMRN or controlled-nutrition solid food (CNSF) for 4 consecutive days. Each subject had 2 days of 24-hour periods of blood glucose measurement using a continuous glucose monitoring system and had a 1-week washout period. Glycemic response (GR) and incremental area under the curve (iAUC) were calculated. The satiety level was measured using a visual analog scale.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> After 48 hours, LMRN reduced GR compared with CNSF with glucose measurements of 13.72 (30.42) and 17.47 (36.38) mg/dl, respectively. The reduction on iAUC after consuming LMRN (36,891 [30,255.8] mg.min/dl) compared with CNSF (40,641 [38,798.9] mg.min/dl) was also noted. Subjects having LMRN felt less hungry and more satiated than those consuming CNSF. The administration of LMRN does not have any serious side effects.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> LMRN provides a greater reduction of GR and longer term of satiety compared with CNSF without causing any serious side effects.</p> Fatimah Eliana, Budi Agung Pranoto Copyright (c) 2020 Fatimah Eliana, Budi A. Pranoto Fri, 14 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0700 A randomized, controlled, cross-over study of the safety and efficacy of superabsorbent diaper for babies with mild-to-moderate diaper rash <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Super-absorbent diaper is a disposable diaper with new technology which has a soft-airy structure, breathable sheet, and rich absorbent core. This study aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of super-absorbent diaper with standard absorbent diaper.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> A single-blinded, randomized, controlled, cross-over study was performed in 3–24 months babies. A safety study was performed in 113 babies without diaper rash (group A: super-absorbent to standard and B: standard to super-absorbent) and efficacy study in 59 babies with mild-to-moderate diaper rash (group C: super-absorbent to standard and D: standard to super-absorbent). Each group used super-absorbent or standard diaper for 2 weeks. Skin assessment scores (SAS) were recorded at baseline, week-2, and week-4. Non-parametric tests were used to analyze the data.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> In the safety study, there was no significant increase of SAS in group A at week-2 and -4, but in group B there was a significant increase of SAS (1.9 to 4.1, <em>p</em> = 0.001) at week-2 with a significant reduction at week-4 (4.1 to 2.2, <em>p</em>&lt;0.001). In the efficacy study, there was a reduction of SAS at week-2 in group C (<em>p</em> = 0.07) and D (<em>p</em> = 0.05). However, SAS increased in group C (6.4 to 8.3, <em>p</em> = 0.2) and decreased in group D (8.6 to 6.1, <em>p</em> = 0.13) at week-4. Super-absorbent diaper showed a significant reduction of SAS in the pubic areas (1.43 to 0.73, <em>p</em>&lt;0.011).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> The new super-absorbent diaper is safe to use and may have efficacy in the improvement of skin conditions and diaper rash, especially in the pubic areas.</p> Inne Arline Diana, Srie Prihianti Gondokaryono, Titi Lestari Sugito, Maya Devita Lokanata, Triana Agustin, Githa Rahmayunita, Indah Maharani, Nanny Shoraya, Haruko Toyoshima, Danang Agung Yunaidi Copyright (c) 2020 Titi Lestari Sugito, Maya Devita Lokanata, Triana Agustin, Githa Rahmayunita, Indah Maharani, Nanny Shoraya, Danang Agung Yunaidi, Haruko Toyoshima, Inne Arline Diana, Srie Prihianti Gondokaryono Mon, 05 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Dressing versus non-dressing technique for long-term exit-site care in children on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a single-center retrospective cohort study <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> There is no consensus on the optimal long-term exit-site care strategy in children on long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) worldwide. Thus, this study aimed to compared the dressing <em>versus</em> non-dressing technique for long-term exit-site care to prevent PD-related infection.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> This retrospective cohort study involved patients aged &lt;18 years with end-stage kidney disease who were on continuous ambulatory PD at the Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital between March 2014 and March 2019. Long-term exit-site care was initiated within 3 months after the insertion of Tenckhoff catheter. The patients and caregivers can choose to either maintain the dressing method or change to the non-dressing method for the subsequent long-term exit-site care. The follow-up was performed until the following 6 months.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> Out of 34 patients, 18 were treated without dressing and 16 with dressing technique. The peritonitis rates were 0.17 and 0.06 episodes per year at risk in the non-dressing and dressing groups; the adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0.4 (95% confidence interval = 0.04–3.25; <em>p</em> = 0.4). Allergic contact dermatitis occurred in 15/18 (83%) patients in the non-dressing group and 11/16 (69%) in the dressing group before long-term exit-site care was applied. Ultimately, no patient in the non-dressing group developed allergic contact dermatitis, whereas 11 (69%) had allergic contact dermatitis in the dressing group at the end of follow-up.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> Non-dressing technique may increase the risk of peritonitis in children on long-term PD; however, it is beneficial for children vulnerable to allergic contact dermatitis.</p> Cahyani Gita Ambarsari, Eka Laksmi Hidayati, Lily Mushahar, Agustina Kadaristiana Copyright (c) 2020 Cahyani Gita Ambarsari, Eka Laksmi Hidayati, Lily Mushahar, Agustina Kadaristiana Mon, 05 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer using methylene blue: a new anatomical landmark involving intercostobrachial and medial pectoral nodes <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) using blue dye is becoming popular in Indonesia given that knowledge on new anatomical landmarks involving intercostobrachial and medial pectoral nodes have replaced the need for radioisotope tracers. This study aimed to evaluate the utility of the proposed landmark involving intercostobrachial and medial pectoral nodes to determine axillary lymph node status during SLNB.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> A prospective study was conducted involving 55 patients with early-stage breast cancer who had clinically negative lymph nodes (T1–T2, cN0) between 2018 and 2019 at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. During SLNB, methylene blue 1% was injected at the subareolar area to identify intercostobrachial and medial pectoral nodes followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Histopathological results of sentinel nodes (SNs) were then compared to those of other axillary nodes.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> SNs were identified in 54 patients (98%), 33 (61%) of whom had both intercostobrachial and medial pectoral SNs. Among patients with SNs, there were 1 patient without intercostobrachial SNs, 10 patients without medial pectoral SNs, and 1 patient with medial pectoral SNs but no intercostobrachial SNs. Accordingly, SNs had a negative predictive value (NPV) of 96.77% for axillary metastasis (95% confidence interval = 81.54–99.51), with a false negative rate of 4.7%. No serious adverse events was observed.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> The high identification rate and NPV, as well as the low false negative rate of the new anatomical landmark involving intercostobrachial and medial pectoral nodes during SLNB, suggest its reliability in determining axillary lymph node status.</p> I Gusti Ngurah Gunawan Wibisana, Muliyadi Copyright (c) 2020 I Gusti Ngurah Gunawan Wibisana, Muliyadi Mon, 05 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Short-term follow-up after percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus occlusion between low and high weight pediatric patients: a single center experience <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Device occlusion is a preferred treatment for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in adult and children patients; however, the exact limit of body weight requirement has not been established. This study aimed to describe the outcome and safety of transcatheter PDA occlusion in low and high weight pediatric patients.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> This was a retrospective study in Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, in patients aged &lt;12 years who had undergone transcatheter PDA occlusions from 2010 to 2017. Data were obtained from the registry including baseline characteristics (age, sex, body weight, and height), procedural-specific data (PDA characteristics, pulmonary and systemic pressures, and flow ratio intra-procedure), and procedural complications. Success rate and adverse events at 24 hours, 1 month, and 3 months after the procedure were assessed.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong></p> <div>A total of 175 subjects were grouped into two categories: low weight, ≤6 kg (n = 50) and high weight, &gt;6 kg (n = 125). The success rates (complete closure) in the ≤6 and &gt;6 kg groups were, 90.0% and 75.9% at 24 hours follow-up, 92.9% and 85.5% at 1 month, and 95.8% and 91.1% at 3 months, respectively. Major complications related to the procedure in patients ≤6 kg included transient dysrhythmia (n = 6) and massive bleeding (n = 2), and complications in patients &gt;6 kg were transient dysrhythmia (n = 14), massive bleeding (n = 1), embolization (n = 1), and death (n = 1).</div> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> Transcatheter PDA occlusion had similar success rate and safety in both low and high weight pediatric patients.</p> Ni Putu Eka Suwitri, Ni Putu Veny Kartika Yantie, Eka Gunawijaya Copyright (c) 2020 Ni Putu Eka Suwitri, Ni Putu Veny Kartika Yantie, Eka Gunawijaya Mon, 05 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Surgical site infection after digestive surgery in a single tertiary hospital in Indonesia: six years of data <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Surgical site infection (SSI) is responsible for increasing cost, morbidity, and mortality related to surgical operations, and has continued to be a significant problem even in hospitals with advanced facilities. This study aimed to describe the SSI among patients after digestive surgery.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> From 2012 to 2017, all abdominal surgeries with SSI in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, except obstetrics and gynecology cases, were included in the study. Demographic characteristics, nutritional status, preoperative and intraoperative conditions, wound contamination/SSI type, and mortality data were reported.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> From 4,893 abdominal surgeries during the period, 135 subjects (2.8%) developed SSI with 42.2% of cases were the clean-contaminated type. Most of the cases were males (66.7%), aged between 25–65 years old (80.0%), subjective goal assessment B (46.7%), had normal weight (57.8%), had longer duration of surgery (70.4%), and had preoperative stay between 2–15 days (65.2%). Most of the SSI patients survived (77.8%).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> Even though the SSI in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital was low, it still needs improvement in preoperative care, intraoperative care, and SSI awareness. Therefore, further studies are required to understand how to reduce the incidence, risk, and SSI-related mortality.</p> Ridho Ardhi Syaiful, Yarman Mazni, Muhamad Luthfi Prasetyo, Toar Jean Maurice Lalisang Copyright (c) 2020 Ridho A Syaiful, Yarman Mazni, Muhamad Luthfi Prasetyo, Toar Lalisang Mon, 05 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Bacterial susceptibility patterns to cotrimoxazole in urinary tract infections of outpatients and inpatients in Jakarta, Indonesia <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Cotrimoxazole, which has been one of the drugs of choice for urinary tract infections (UTIs) since 1960, must be evaluated to determine whether it is still a relevant drug for this use. This study aimed to assess the susceptibility patterns to cotrimoxazole of the bacteria that cause UTIs from urine samples of female outpatients (community-acquired [CA]-UTI) and inpatients (hospital-acquired [HA]-UTI) in Jakarta.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong> This study was conducted from December 2014 to December 2015. Susceptibility testing of bacteria causing UTIs was conducted on 27 of 311 female outpatient urine samples collected from six clinics in Jakarta, and secondary data susceptibility testing was performed on 27 of 107 urine samples of inpatients from hospitals in Jakarta. These samples were examined in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> Susceptibility to cotrimoxazole was reported in 83% of the bacteria causing UTIs in CA-UTI and 44% of the bacteria in HA-UTI patients. <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> was the most common cause of CA-UTI, with all isolates susceptible to cotrimoxazole (100%). Conversely, <em>Escherichia coli</em> was the most common cause of HA-UTI but was only susceptible in some isolates (44%). Bacteria from CA-UTI patients were almost twice as susceptible to cotrimoxazole compared with HA-UTI patients (<em>p</em> = 0.003).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> Based on the susceptibility patterns identified, cotrimoxazole can be used as a treatment for CA-UTI but not for HA-UTI patients in Jakarta, Indonesia.</p> Yeva Rosana, Dwiana Ocviyanti, Wafridha Akbar Copyright (c) 2020 Yeva Rosana, Dwiana Ocviyanti, Wafridha Akbar Mon, 05 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Percutaneous atrial septal defect closure in infant weighing <10 kg and having a bilateral superior vena cava: a case report <p>Percutaneous closure has become a preferred treatment for secundum atrial septal defect (ASD). However, this approach remains challenging in treating small infant weighing &lt;10 kg because of procedure-related complications. The closure of ASD in other congenital anomalies, such as a bilateral superior vena cava (SVC), should be cautiously conducted. A 15-month-old boy with a body weight of 8 kg was diagnosed with secundum ASD (9–11 mm in diameter), residual pulmonary stenosis, and bilateral SVC. Transcatheter closure of ASD was successfully performed by using a 12 mm CeraFlex occluder device (Lifetech Scientific Corporation). Post-procedural examination showed good results without any impingement to the adjacent structure. Therefore,<br>the transcatheter closure of ASD in infant weighing &lt;10 kg and having bilateral SVC is technically feasible and safe.</p> Radityo Prakoso, Rina Ariani, Poppy Soerwanti Roebiono, Yovi Kurniawati, Oktavia Lilyasari, Indriwanto Sakidjan, Anna Ulfah Rahajoe, Sisca Natalia Siagian, Olfi Lelya, Ganesja Moelia Harimurti Copyright (c) 2020 Radityo Prakoso, Rina Ariani, Poppy Soerwanti Roebiono, Yovi Kurniawati, Oktavia Lilyasari, Indriwan Sakidjan, Anna Ulfah Rahajoe, Sisca Natalia Siagian, Olfi Lelya, Ganesja Moelia Harimurti Thu, 09 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Nine-segment laminectomy is safe for the resection of a schwannoma extending from C-2 to T-3: a rare case report <p>Cervical spine schwannoma, which is long and entirely intracanal, is rare to be found. Its rarity and atypical feature leads to difficulty in diagnosing and managing cases because of the scarcity of available literature. The surgical removal of this type of schwannomas via multisegment laminectomy is a great challenge because of various risks of postoperative complications. This report describes cervical spine schwannoma that was initially was not suspected as schwannoma and was subject to surgical removal via nine-segment laminectomy. In one year after surgery, motor function returned to normal strength, no new neurological deficits occurred, and no kyphotic deformity, which is a common complication of multisegment laminectomy.</p> Mohamad Saekhu, Nuryati Chairani Siregar, Kevin Gunawan, Setyo Widi Nugroho Copyright (c) 2020 Mohamad Saekhu, Nuryati Chairani Siregar, Kevin Gunawan, Setyowidi Nugroho Mon, 05 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Antiviral treatment of COVID-19: a clinical pharmacology narrative review <p>The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019 in China, has become a pandemic in March 2020. Repurposing old and relatively safe drugs becomes an advantageous option to obtain the urgently needed effective treatment. Repurposing chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, oseltamivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and<br>favipiravir, and the use of investigational drug remdesivir for treatment of COVID-19, are reviewed from the clinical pharmacology perspective, particularly its efficacy and safety. Limited clinical studies of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, and remdesivir showed some efficacy in COVID-19 treatment with tolerable adverse effects. Potential serious adverse effect of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is cardiac arrhythmia. Oseltamivir has no documented activity against SARS-CoV-2, while lopinavir/ritonavir showed limited efficacy in COVID-19. Currently, there is no sufficient evidence to recommend any specific anti-COVID-19 treatment. The decision to use these drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic must be based on careful consideration of the potential benefits and risks to the patient.</p> Instiaty, I Gusti Agung Ayu Putu Sri Darmayani, Jefman Efendi Marzuki, Ferina Angelia, William, Angelina Siane, Lela Dwi Sary, Lina Yohanes, Reni Widyastuti, Riki Nova, Dewi Sharon Simorangkir, Lonah, Yolanda Safitri, Gestina Aliska, Anggi Gayatri Copyright (c) 2020 Instiaty, I Gusti Agung Ayu Putu Sri Darmayani, Jefman Efendi Marzuki, Ferina Angelia, William, Angelina Siane, Lela Dwi Sary, Lina Yohanes, Reni Widyastuti, Riki Nova, Dewi Sharon Simorangkir, Lonah, Yolanda Safitri, Gestina Aliska, Anggi Gayatri Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Retraction: Periodic acid-Schiff and alcian blue immunohistochemistry to detect mucin in mucinous breast carcinoma <p>[This retracts the article DOI: <a href="">10.13181/mji.oa.192768</a>]</p> Primariadewi Rustamadji, Jason Wibowo, Belinda Murtani, Christy Magdalena Copyright (c) 2020 Primariadewi Rustamadji, Jason Wibowo, Belinda Murtani, Christy Magdalena Mon, 05 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Front & Back Matter Copyright (c) Mon, 05 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0700