Eating behavior affects cardio-metabolic risk in high school teenagers in a developing country

  • Rita Suhadi Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sanata Dharma, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Phebe Hendra Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sanata Dharma, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Dita Maria Virginia Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sanata Dharma, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Christianus Heru Setiawan Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sanata Dharma, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Keywords: blood pressure, body mass index, cardiovascular, eating behavior, risk, teenagers
Abstract viewed: 263 times
PDF downloaded: 131 times
HTML downloaded: 37 times
EPUB downloaded: 148 times

Abstract

BACKGROUND Modernization negatively changes lifestyle, characterized by excessive eating and reduced energy consumption, and concurrently increases the cardiometabolic risk. This study was aimed to evaluate the association between eating behavior and cardio-metabolic risk factors including body mass index (BMI) in percentile, blood pressure (BP) in percentile, waist circumference, and heart rate in total subjects and gender sub-groups.

METHODS This analytical cross-sectional study was done from July to November 2018. High schools in four provinces of Indonesia and students were selected using purposive sampling. Subjects’ profiles were collected from interview and cardio-metabolic parameters were measured at the study sites. Data were analyzed with chi-square and independent t-test.

RESULTS Subjects who were overweight/obese and had high BP accounted for 27.1% and 9.3–12.0% of the total subjects (n = 768), respectively. Subjects who having breakfast tended to have lower BMI (p = 0.006), and the lower consumption of western meals had lower heart rate (p = 0.02). Male subjects had more meal frequency and had less quantity of snacks than female subjects (p<0.001). Male subjects with routine intake of vegetables had low heart rate (p = 0.03). Female subjects with routine breakfast had better BMI (p<0.001), and lower diastolic BP (p = 0.004) and waist circumference (p = 0.02), whereas those who consumed Western meals had higher heart rate (p = 0.046) and waist circumference (p = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS Eating behaviors are likely to affect cardio-metabolic risk factors, and the effects vary within gender groups.

References

  1. Pariona A. Leading causes of death in Indonesia [Internet]. World Atlas. 2017 [cited 2018 Sep 25]. Available from: https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/leading-causes-of-death-in-indonesia.html.

  2. Suhadi R, Linawati Y, Wulandari ET, Viriginia DM, Setiawan CH. The metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk among lower socioeconomic subjects in Yogyakarta-Indonesia. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2017;10(3):367-72. https://doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i3.16310

  3. Hong YM. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease beginning in childhood. Korean Circ J. 2010;40(1):1-9. https://doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2010.40.1.1

  4. Charakida M, Jones A, Falaschetti E, Khan T, Finer N, Sattar N, et al. Childhood obesity and vascular phenotypes: a population study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60(25):2643-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2012.08.1017

  5. Riley M, Bluhm B. High blood pressure in children and adolescents. Am Fam Physician. 2012;85(7):693–700.

  6. Anyaegbu EI, Dharnidharka VR. Hypertension in the teenager. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2014;61(1):131-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2013.09.011

  7. Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Ovbiagele B, Casey DE, Smith SC, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018:71(19);2199–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.11.005

  8. World Health Organization. Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio report of a WHO expert consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008 [cited 2018 Oct 24]. p. 1-34. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44583/9789241501491_eng.pdf;jsessionid=D231469B3272A7BA0697C8C12E0109B4?sequence=1.

  9. Kanter R, Caballero B. Global gender disparities in obesity: a review. Adv Nutr An Int Rev J. 2012;3(4):491-8. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.112.002063

  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Healthy weight. Child & teen BMI calculator [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2018 Oct 24]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/bmi/calculator.html.

  11. EBMcalc System. Blood pressure percentile for boys (2-17 years) [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2018 Oct 24]. Available from: https://www.merckmanuals.com/medical-calculators/BloodPressurePercentBoys.htm.

  12. EBMcalc System. Blood pressure percentile for girls (2-17 years) [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2018 Oct 24]. Available from: https://www.merckmanuals.com/medical-calculators/BloodPressurePercentGirls.htm.

  13. Sahoo K, Sahoo B, Choudhury AK, Sofi NY, Kumar R, Bhadoria AS. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences. J Fam Med Prim care. 2015;4(2):187-92. https://doi.org/10.4103/2249-4863.154628

  14. Popkin BM, Adair LS, Ng SW. Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries. Nutr Rev. 2012;70(1):3-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00456.x

  15. Wiklund P. The role of physical activity and exercise in obesity and weight management: time for critical appraisal. J Sport Heal Sci. 2016;5(2):151-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2016.04.001

  16. BPDANPKesehatan. Riset kesehatan dasar 2013 [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 24]. Available from: www.depkes.go.id/resources/download/general/HasilRiskesdas2013.pdf%0A%0A.

  17. Dupont WD, Plummer WDJ. PS: power and sample size calculation [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2018 Oct 24]. Department Biostatistics Vanderbilt University. Available from: http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/wiki/Main/PowerSampleSize.

  18. Davis BH, Mclaren CE, Carcio AJ, Wong L, Hedley BD, Keeney M, et al. Determination of optimal replicate number for validation of imprecision using fluorescence cell-based assays: proposed practical method. Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2013;84(5):329-37. https://doi.org/10.1002/cytob.21116

  19. Ayer J, Charakida M, Deanfield JE, Celermajer DS. Lifetime risk: childhood obesity and cardiovascular risk. Eur Heart J. 2015;36(22):1371-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehv089

  20. Paolo P. Need for a revision of the normal limits of resting heart rate. Hypertension. 1999;33(2):622-5. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.33.2.622

  21. Zhao Y, Wang L, Xue H, Wang H, Wang Y. Fast food consumption and its associations with obesity and hypertension among children: results from the baseline data of the Childhood Obesity Study in China Mega-cities. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):933. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4952-x

  22. Arlinghaus KR, Vollrath K, Hernandez DC, Momin SR, O'Connor TM, Power TG, et al. Authoritative parent feeding style is associated with better child dietary quality at dinner among low-income minority families. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018;108:1-7. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy142

  23. Mattson MP, Allison DB, Fontana L, Harvie M, Longo VD, Malaisse WJ. Meal frequency and timing in health and disease. In: Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2014. p. 16647-53. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1413965111

  24. Slavin JL, Lloyd B. Health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Adv Nutr. 2012;3(4):506-16. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.112.002154

  25. Anand SS, Hawkes C, de Souza RJ, Mente A, Dehghan M, Nugent R, et al. Food consumption and its impact on cardiovascular disease: importance of solutions focused on the globalized food system: a report from the workshop convened by the World Heart Federation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;66(14):1590-614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2015.07.050

  26. McNaughton SA, Ball K, Mishra GD, Crawford DA. Dietary patterns of adolescents and risk of obesity and hypertension. J Nutr. 2008;138(2):364-70. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/138.2.364

  27. Tian D, Meng J. Exercise for prevention and relief of cardiovascular disease: prognosis, mechanisms, and approaches. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 219;2019:3756750. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3756750

  28. Harbuwono DS, Pramono LA, Yunir E, Subekti I. Obesity and central obesity in Indonesia: evidence from a national health survey. 2018;27(2):114-20. https://doi.org/10.13181/mji.v27i2.1512

  29. Syme C, Abrahamowicz M, Leonard GT, Perron M, Richer L, Veillette S, et al. Sex differences in blood pressure and its relationship to body composition and metabolism in adolescence. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009;163(9):818-25. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.92

  30. Yusuf S, Rangarajan S, Teo K, Islam S, Li W, Liu L, et al. Cardiovascular risk and events in 17 low-, middle-, and high-income countries. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(9):818-27. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1311890

  31. Barnes TL, French SA, Harnack LJ, Mitchell NR, Wolfson J. Snacking behaviors, diet quality, and body mass index in a community sample of working adults. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015;115(7):1117-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2015.01.009

  32. Hajar R. Risk factors for coronary artery disease: historical perspectives. Heart Views. 2017;18(3):109-14. https://doi.org/10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_106_17

  33. Rodgers JL, Jones J, Bolleddu SI, Vanthenapalli S, Rodgers LE, Shah K, et al. Cardiovascular risks associated with gender and aging. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. 2019;6(2):19. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6020019

  34. Lee HJ, Jang J, Lee SA, Choi DW, Park EC. Association between breakfast frequency and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk: a cross-sectional study of KNHANES data, 2014-2016. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(10):1853. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101853

  35. Kanegae H, Oikawa T, Okawara Y, Hoshide S, Kario K. Which blood pressure measurement, systolic or diastolic, better predicts future hypertension in normotensive young adults? J Clin Hypertens. 2017;19(6):603-10. https://doi.org/10.1111/jch.13015

  36. Cote AT, Harris KC, Panagiotopoulos C, Sandor GGS, Devlin AM. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62(15):1309-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2013.07.042

  37. Pascual JM, Rodilla E, Costa JA, Perez-Lahiguera F, Gonzalez C, Lurbe E, et al. Body weight variation and control of cardiovascular risk factors in essential hypertension. Blood Press. 2009;18(5):247-54. https://doi.org/10.3109/08037050903244791

  38. Suhadi R, Virginia DM, Setiawan CH. The effect of health education by pharmacists on 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk: a cluster-randomized control study in a low socioeconomic status Javanese population. J Prim Care Community Health. 2018;9:2150132718773674. https://doi.org/10.1177/2150132718773674

Published
2020-03-26
How to Cite
1.
Suhadi R, Hendra P, Virginia DM, Setiawan CH. Eating behavior affects cardio-metabolic risk in high school teenagers in a developing country. Med J Indones [Internet]. 2020Mar.26 [cited 2020Jun.5];29(1):71-. Available from: https://mji.ui.ac.id/journal/index.php/mji/article/view/3494
Section
Community Research