High visibility of outdoor tobacco advertisements around health facilities in East Java, Indonesia: a geospatial analysis

  • Hario Megatsari Department of Health Promotion and Behavior Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Ilham Akhsanu Ridlo Department of Health Policy and Administration, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Dian Kusuma Centre for Health Economics & Policy Innovation, Imperial College Business School, London, United Kingdom
Keywords: geospatial analysis, health facilities, Indonesia, tobacco advertisement, visibility
Abstract viewed: 1084 times
PDF downloaded: 0 times
HTML downloaded: 0 times
EPUB downloaded: 0 times


BACKGROUND Indonesian tobacco control initiatives are minimal despite having the second-highest adult male smoking prevalence in the world, with less than 10% of districts/cities banning outdoor tobacco advertisements. This research aimed to provide evidence on the presence of outdoor tobacco advertisements near health facilities in Surabaya where there is no outdoor advertising ban.

METHODS Data collection was carried out in Surabaya from October to November 2018. Data of government (public) and private health facilities were obtained from the city health office. Two spatial data analyses were carried out: a buffer analysis near the healthcare facilities and an advertisement hotspot analysis using ArcMap 10.6.

RESULTS From 308 tobacco advertisements that were identified, there were billboards (63%), banners (31%), and videoboards (7%). Of 142 public and 1,242 private health facilities in Surabaya, 26% and 31% had advertisements within 300 m and 63% and 70% were within advertisement hotspots, respectively. Furthermore, 5% of advertisements were within 300 m from public health facilities and 21% of them were within 300 m from private health facilities.

CONCLUSIONS Outdoor tobacco advertisements were widespread throughout the city, prominently around public and private health facilities.


Download data is not yet available.


  1. World Health Organization. Factsheet 2018 Indonesia [Internet]. World Health Orgnization; 2018 [cited 2019 Jan 29]. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/272673/wntd_2018_indonesia_fs.pdf.Ministry of Health of The Republic of Indonesia. Basic Health Research (RISKESDAS) 2018.

  2. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia: National Institute of Health Research and Development; 2018. Indonesian.

  3. World Health Organization. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic 2008: the MPOWER package. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008.

  4. Sebayang SK, Dewi DMSK, Lailiyah S, Ahsan A. Mixed-methods evaluation of a ban on tobacco advertising and promotion in Banyuwangi District, Indonesia. Tob Control. 2019;28(6):651-6. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054443

  5. Surabaya City Government. City regulation number 5/2008 on smoke free area [Internet]. Surabaya; 2008 [cited 2019 Jan 29]. Available from: https://jdih.surabaya.go.id/pdfdoc/perda_99.pdf. Indonesian.

  6. Mayor of Surabaya. Mayor's regulation number 70/2010 on calculation of advertisement rent [Internet]. Surabaya; 2010 [cited 2019 Jan 29]. Available from: https://jdih.surabaya.go.id/pdfdoc/perwali_530.pdf.

  7. Stopka TJ, Goulart MA, Meyers DJ, Hutcheson M, Barton K, Onofrey S, et al. Identifying and characterizing hepatitis C virus hotspots in Massachusetts: a spatial epidemiological approach. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17(1):294. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-017-2400-2

  8. Lessler J, Azman AS, McKay HS, Moore SM. What is a hotspot anyway? Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;96(6):1270-3. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0427

  9. Chowell G, Rothenberg R. Spatial infectious disease epidemiology: on the cusp. BMC Med. 2018;16:192. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-018-1184-6

  10. Hapsari D, Nainggolan O, Kusuma D. Hotspots and regional variation in smoking prevalence among 514 districts in Indonesia: analysis of Basic Health Research 2018. Glob J Health Sci. 2020;12(10):1-32. https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v12n10p32

  11. Adisasmito W, Amir V, Atin A, Megraini A, Kusuma D. Geographic and socioeconomic disparity in cardiovascular risk factors in Indonesia: analysis of the Basic Health Research 2018. BMC Public Health. 2020;20:1004. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09099-1

  12. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of smoking-50 years of progress: a report of the surgeon general. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2014.

How to Cite
Megatsari H, Akhsanu Ridlo I, Kusuma D. High visibility of outdoor tobacco advertisements around health facilities in East Java, Indonesia: a geospatial analysis. Med J Indones [Internet]. 2021Apr.28 [cited 2024Jun.14];30(2):170–4. Available from: https://mji.ui.ac.id/journal/index.php/mji/article/view/4177
Brief Communication