The effect of fiber-rich milk and equi-carbohydrate snack on glycemic and insulin response and satiety feeling
Background: Additional dietary fibers which can decrease the glycemic response by slowing down digestion whilst maintaining the available carbohydrate content is one approach of healthy diet. This study aimed to compare post-prandial glycemic and insulin response, hunger and satiety feeling after consuming fiber-rich milk compare with equi-carbohydrate food as morning snack in healthy adults.
Methods: Cross-over study was conducted on 12 healthy subjects who fulfilled the criteria. Each test food was given after consuming standard breakfast. Venous blood samples for insulin and glucose level were taken before consuming test food, at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after, and plotted against time to generate a curve. Hunger and satiety assessments were taken by visual analog scale (VAS) after each blood sampling.
Results: In average, age was 30.8+4.3 years old, body mass index was 20.6±1.6 kg/m2. Seven of twelve subjects were females. There were significantly differences in postprandial glycemic response (p<0.001), insulin response (p=0.045) and hunger feeling (p=0.021) between the two foods. However, postprandial satiety feelings were not different significantly (p=0.357). The glycemic response area under the curve of fiber-rich milk was significantly lower than the equi-carbohydrate snack (p=0.010).
Conclusion: Differences in glycemic and insulin response, and hunger feeling between two test foods, suggesting that fiber-rich milk can be used as an alternative snack for healthy adults. Further study is needed for the use of fiber-rich milk as an alternative snack for pre-diabetic patients.
Sadler M. Food, glycaemic response and health. ILSI Europe; 2011.
Steyn NP, Mann J, Bennett PH, Temple N, Zimmet P, Tuomilehto J, et al. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Public Health Nutr 2004;7:147–65.
Ministry of Health RI. Riskesdas. 2013.
Liu Z, Fu C, Wang W, Xu B. Prevalence of chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in outpatients - a cross-sectional hospital based survey in urban China. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2010;8:62.
Litwak L, Goh S-Y, Hussein Z, Malek R, Prusty V, Khamseh ME. Prevalence of diabetes complications in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its association with baseline characteristics in the multinational A1chieve study. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2013;5:57.
Jenkins D, Wolever T, Taylor R, Barker H, Fielden H, Baldwin J, et al. Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:362–6.
Wolever TM, Bolognesi C. Prediction of glucose and insulin responses of normal subjects after consuming mixed meals varying in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate and glycemic index. J Nutr 1996;126:2807–12.
LaCombe A, Ganji V. Influence of two breakfast meals differing in glycemic load on satiety, hunger, and energy intake in preschool children. Nutr J 2010;9:53.
Kaur N, Gupta A. Application of inulin and oligofructose in health and nutrition. J Biosci 2002;27:703–14.
Volek J, Sharman M, Love D, Avery N, Gomez A, T Scheett. Body composition and hormonal responses to a carbohydrate-restricted diet. Metabolism 2002;51:864–70.
Iozzo P, Beck-Nielsen H, Laakso M, Smith U, Yki-Järvinen H, Ferrannini E. Independent influence of age on basal insulin secretion in nondiabetic humans. European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:863–8.
Carroll JF, Kaiser K a, Franks SF, Deere C, Caffrey JL. Influence of BMI and gender on postprandial hormone responses. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007;15:2974–83.
Yu K, Ke M-Y, Li W-H, Zhang S-Q, Fang X-C. The impact of soluble dietary fibre on gastric emptying, postprandial blood glucose and insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2014;23:210–8.
Holst JJ, Gromada J. Role of incretin hormones in the regulation of insulin secretion in diabetic and nondiabetic humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2004;287:E199–206.
Juvonen KR, Purhonen A-K, Salmenkallio-Marttila M, Lähteenmäki L, Laaksonen DE, Herzig K-H, et al. Viscosity of oat bran-enriched beverages influences gastrointestinal hormonal responses in healthy humans. J Nutr 2009;139:461–6.
Crapo P a, Reaven G, Olefsky J. Plasma glucose and insulin responses to orally administered simple and complex carbohydrates. Diabetes 1976;25:741–7.
Holt SH a, Miller JCB, Petocz P, Bar M. An insulinindex of foods : the insulindemand generatedby 1000-kJ portions of common foods13 Snack foods and confectionery. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;1264–76.
Perkeni. Konsensus Pengelolaan dan Pencegahan Diabetes Melitus tipe 2 di Indonesia. 2011.
Brand-Miller J, Atkinson F, Rowan A. Effect of Added Carbohydrates on Glycemic and Insulin Responses to Children’s Milk Products. Nutrients 2013;5:23–31.
Foster-Powell K, Holt SHA, Brand-Miller JC. International table of gylcemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:5–56.
Barclay AW, Petocz P, Mcmillan-price J, Flood VM, Prvan T, Mitchell P, et al. Glycemic index , glycemic load , and chronic disease risk — a meta- analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:627–37.
Abdul-Ghani M a, DeFronzo R a. Plasma glucose concentration and prediction of future risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32 Suppl 2:S194–8.
Liljeberg Elmståhl H, Björck I. Milk as a supplement to mixed meals may elevate postprandial insulinaemia. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001;55:994–9.
Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ, Krezowski PA, Billington CJ, Parker S. The serum insulin and plasma glucose responses to milk and fruit products in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Diabetologia 1986;29:784–91.
Bornet F, Jardy-Gennetier A, Jacquet N, Stowell J. Glycaemic response to foods: impact on satiety and long term weight regulation. Appetite 2007;49:535–53.
Copyright (c) 2016 Dian N. Chandra, Saptawati Bardosono
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with Medical Journal of Indonesia agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant Medical Journal of Indonesia right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License that allows others to remix, adapt, build upon the work non-commercially with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in Medical Journal of Indonesia.
- Authors are permitted to copy and redistribute the journal's published version of the work non-commercially (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in Medical Journal of Indonesia.