A second generation of RT-PCR assay for detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection
Aim A spesific and rapid diagnosis such as RT-PCR assay is the most needed to minimize transmission of HIV-1 infection. Therefore, in this study we developed the RT-PCR assay that was spesific against the gag gene of HIV-1.
Methods The developed RT-PCR assay was evaluated against 46 specimens that were obtained from voluntary counseling and testing for HIV (VCT) in Rumah Sakit Umum Pemerintah (RSUP) Sanglah, Bali. To get the sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR assay, the results of assays were compared with the results of commercially serologic tests
that were commonly used in Indonesia.
Results The RT-PCR assay could detect 21 of 26 serologic test-positive specimens and showed 19 negative results of 20 serologic test-negative specimens. There was one specimen that was positive in RT-PCR but negative in serologic assay, which might depict a true yield at particular condition when the serologic assay was unable to detect. Five serologic positive-test specimens were negative by RT-PCR that was possibly caused by low detection level of the assay.
Conclusion The RT-PCR assay is potential to be used for the detection of HIV-1 infection with a sensitivity and specificity of 80.8% and 95.0% respectively. (Med J Indones 2010;19:154-7)
Brooks GF, Butel JS, Morse SA, editors. Jawetz, Melnick and Adelberg’s medical microbiology. 23rd ed. Boston: McGrawHill; 2004.
Fauci AS. HIV and AIDS: 20 years of science. Nat Med. 2003;9:839-43.
Harry DJ, Jennings MB, Yee J, Carlson JR. Antigen detection for human immunodefi ciency virus. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1989;2:241-9.
Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.
Cardoso AR, Goncalves C, Pascoalinho D, Gil C, Ferreira AF, Bartolo I, et al. Seronegative infection and AIDS caused by an A2 subsubtype HIV-1. AIDS. 2004;18:1071-4.
Simon F, Mauclere P, Roques P, Loussert-Ajaka I, Muller-Trutwin MC, Saragosti S, et al. Identifi cation of a new human immunodefi ciency virus type 1 distinct from group M and group O. Nat Med. 1998;4:1032-7.
Mylonakis E, Paliou M, Lally M, Flanigan TP, Rich JD. Laboratory testing for infection with the human immunodefi ciency virus: established and novel approaches. Am J Med. 2000;109:568-76.
Reimer L, Mottice S, Schable C, Sullivan P, Nakashima A, Rayfi eld M, et al. Absence of detectable antibody in a patient infected with human immunodefi ciency virus. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25:98-100.
Fonseca MO, Pang L, de Avila Sdo L, Arruk VG, Tozetto-Mendoza TR, Ferreira AW, et al. Cross-reactivity of anti-Plasmodium falciparum antibodies and HIV tests. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000;94:171-2.
Courouce AM, Barin F, Maniez M, Janot C, Noel L, Elghouzzi MH. Effectiveness of assays for antibodies to HIV and p24 antigen to detect very recent HIV infections in blood donors. The Retrovirus Study Group of the French Society of Blood Transfusion. AIDS. 1992;6:1548-50.
Yasmon A, Fatmawati NND, Ibrahim F, Parwati KT, Bela B. In-house RT-PCR assay for detection of human immunodefi ciency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Makara Seri Kesehatan. 2009;13: 92-4.
Zacharias NM, Athanassaki ID, Sangi-Haghpeykar H, Gardner MO. High false-positive rate of human immunodefi ciency virus rapid serum screening in a predominantly hispanic prenatal population. J Perinatol. 2004;24:743-7.
Mylonakis E, Paliou M, Greenbough TC, Flaningan TP, Letvin NL, Rich JD. Report of a false-positive HIV test result and the potential use of additional tests in establishing HIV serostatus. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:2386-8.
Liu Z, Hou J. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) dual infection. Int J Med Sci. 2006;3:57-62.
Jain MK, Joshi R, Attar N, Keiser P, Lee W. Comparison of Triple Infection with HIV/HBV/HCV to HIV/HCV and HIV/HBV. Southwestern Medical Centre; 2007. Available from: http://retroconference.org/2007/PDFs/933.pdf. (Accessed on 6th Dec. 2007)
Copyright (c) 2010 Andi Yasmon, Ni N.D. Fatmawati, Fera Ibrahim, Budiman Bela
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with Medical Journal of Indonesia agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant Medical Journal of Indonesia right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License that allows others to remix, adapt, build upon the work non-commercially with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in Medical Journal of Indonesia.
- Authors are permitted to copy and redistribute the journal's published version of the work non-commercially (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in Medical Journal of Indonesia.