Analysis of fatty acids in Ghee and olive oil and their probable causal effect in lipoid pneumonia

  • Zein Mirghani
  • Tayseer Zein
  • Samuel Annoble
  • John Winter
  • Randa Mostafa
Keywords: Bronchoalevolar lavage, gas chromatography, Ghee, methyl esters, lipoid pneumonia
Abstract viewed: 2266 times
PDF downloaded: 946 times


Aim: To analyze and identify the fatty acids found in homemade ghee and in olive oil and compare those to fatty acids found in bronchoalevolar lavage of children with lipoid pneumonia.

Methods: The fatty acids found in homemade fat "Ghee" and olive oil were analyzed by gas chromatography. Methyl ester derivatives suitable for GC analysis were prepared directly from olive oil or from Ghee using anhydrous methanolic-HCl. Bronchoscopy and bronchoalevolar lavage was performed in eight children aged between 2 and 4 years, all with history of using homemade ghee and/or olive oil in the recumbent position.

Results: The analysis of fatty acids in Ghee and olive oil show similar gas chromatographic pattern as those of bronchoalevolar lavage.

Conclusion: The three fatty acids responsible for the deleterious effects of lipoid pneumonia were identified. Lipoid pneumonia should be one of the differentials diagnosis in children presenting with respiratory distress. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:252-7)


Download data is not yet available.


  1. Banjar H. Lipoid pneumonia. A Review. Bahrain Med. Bull. 2003; 25:36-9.

  2. Furuya ME, Cordova M, Figueroa R, Vargas MH, Garcia RG, Juan RS. Cutoff values of lipid-laden alveolar macrophages for diagnosing aspiration in infants and children. Paediatr Pulmonol. 2007, 5:452-7.

  3. Gil A. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory disease. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002; 56(8):388-96.

  4. Betancourt SL, Martinez JS, Rossi SE, Truong MT, Carrillo J, Erasmus JJ. Lipoid pneumonia: spectrum of clinical and radiologic manifestations. Am J Roentgenol. 2010; 194(1):103-9.

  5. Siasi SM, Ferreirall AS, Daltrolli PA, Caetano RL, Moreira JS, Santos TQ. Evolution of exogenous lipoid pnuomonia in children: clinical aspects, radiological aspects and role of bronchoalevolar ravage. J Bra Pneumol 2009; 35(9):839-45.

  6. Franquet T, Gimenez A, Roson N, Torrubia S, Sabate J, Perez G. Aspiration Disease, Pitfalls, and Dfferential Diagnosis. Radiographics 2000; 20:673-5.

  7. Al-Kindi H, Abdoani R, EL-Iraqi M, Praseeda I. Lipoid Pemonia Following Aspiration of Ghee (animal fat) in an Omani Infant. Oman Med J. 2008; 23:123-5.

  8. Ohwada A, Yoshioka Y, Shimanuki Y, Mitani K, Kumasaka T, Dambara T, Fukuchi Y. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia following ingestion of liquid paraffi n. Intern Med. 2002; 41(6):483-6.

  9. Hoffman LR, Elizabeth HY, Kanne JP, Effmann EL, Roland LG, Cornelius WV. Lipoid pneumonia due to Mexican folk remedies. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005; 159:1043-8.

  10. Adhisivam B, Mahadevan S. Olis that spoil the child. Ind J Paed. 2006; 73(6):88-9.

  11. Kassarjan Y. An infant with respiratory distress. Clin Paediatr. 2001; 40:507-9.

  12. Rossi SE, Franquet T, Volpacchino M, Gimenez A, Aguilar G. Tree-in Bud Pattern AT Thin-Section CT of the Lung: Radiologic-Pathologic Overview. RadioGraphics 2005; 25:789-801.

  13. Zanetti G, Marchiori E, Gasparetto T, Escuissato D, Souza A. Lipoid pnenuomnia in children following mineral oil used in treatment of constipation: high resolution CT fi ndings in 17 patients.Pediatr Radiol. 2007; 37:1135-9.

  14. Khilnani GC, Hadda V. Lipoid pneumonia: an uncommon entity. Indian J Med Sci. 2009, 63:474-80.

  15. Sias S, Pedro A, Daltro M, Marchiori E, Angela S, Ferreria M, Regina L, Caetano M, Cleonice S, Silva M, Muller M, Moreira J, Santos T. Clinic and radiological improvement Vol. 19, No. 4, December 2010 Fatty acids and lipoid pneumonia 257 of lipoid pneumonia with multiple bronchalveolar lavages. Pediatr Pulmol. 2009, 44(4):309-15.

  16. Shira B, Haramati L, Vivan R. Radiological and clinical findings in acute and chronic exogenous lipoid pneumonia. J Thoracic Imaging 2003; 8(4):217-24.

  17. Banjar HH. Areview of 151 cases of pediatric noncystic fi brosis bronchioectasis in tertiary care center. Ann Throc Med. 2007; 2:3-8.

  18. Bobbak V, Timothy L. Complementary medicines and pulmonary toxicities: what a chest physician should know. Clin Pulmo Med. 2007; 14(6):338-45.

  19. Christie W. W. Lipid analysis, London: Pergamon Press;1973. p88

  20. Choong Y, Lin H. Gas chromatographic determination of synthetic antioxidants in edible fats and oils - a simple methylation method. J Food and Drug Analysis 2001; 1(9):20-6

  21. Mirghani Z, Morad NA, Annobil SH, Adzaku FK, Kameswaran M. Effects of different types of oil aspiration in albino rats and its correlation with humans. Biomed Res. 2006; 17: 7-11.

  22. Harizi H, Nobert G. 5-Lipoxygenase pathway: Dendritic cells, and adaptive immunity. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2004; 2:99-105.

  23. Garantziotis S, Li Z, Potts EN, Lindsey JY, Stober VP, Polosukhin VV, Blackwell TS, Schwartz DA, Foster WM, Hollingsworth JW. TLR4 is necessary for hyaluronanmediated airway hyperresponsiveness after ozone inhalation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010; 181(7):666-75.

  24. Mylonaki E, Voutas V, Antoniou D, Papakosta D, Kontakiotis T, Skordalaki A, Vafi adis E, Christaki P. Hydrocarbon pneumonitis following liquid paraffi n aspiration during a fi re-eating performance: a case report. J Med Case Reports 2008; 19(2): 214-5.

How to Cite
Mirghani Z, Zein T, Annoble S, Winter J, Mostafa R. Analysis of fatty acids in Ghee and olive oil and their probable causal effect in lipoid pneumonia. Med J Indones [Internet]. 2010Nov.1 [cited 2024Jun.20];19(4):252-7. Available from:
Clinical Research