Proportion of influenza cases in severe acute respiratory illness in Indonesia during 2008-2009

  • Ririn Ramadhany
  • Vivi Setiawaty
  • Holy A. Wibowo
  • Dewi Lokida
Keywords: influenza, severe acute respiratory illness


Aim: To access the proportion of Influenza which caused SARI cases

Methods: From April 2008 until March 2009, 549 samples of nasal and throat swabs were collected from SARI patients from eight hospitals in eight provinces in Indonesia. The samples were analyzed for Influenza by real-time RT-PCR method using several specific primers for influenza A (A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and A/H5N1) and Influenza B. The sequence of these primers was provided by CDC, Atlanta.

Results: We found 516 (94%) of the specimens testing results were not infl uenza A or B viruses. There was 21 (4%) cases caused by influenza A and 12 (2%) caused by influenza B. From the influenza A cases, one case of SARI was caused by A/H1N1, two cases were A/H5N1, 17 cases were A/H3N2 and one case was unsubtypeable Influenza A.

Conclusion: The majority of SARI cases were not caused by influenza viruses. From this surveillance the most common influenza  A related to SARI is A/H3N2. Facts of the avian influenza virus A/H5N1 cases have been found in Indonesia and the spread of novel virus influenza A/H1N1 in 2009 raised our concern about the importance of SARI surveillance. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:264-7)


Cox NJ, Subbarao K. Global Epidemiology of Infl uenza:Past and Present. Ann Rev of Med. 2000; 51: 407-21

Chan PK. Outbreak of avian infl uenzaA (H5N1) virus infection in Hong Kong 1997. Clin Infect Dis. 2002; 34 Suppl 2: S58-64

World Health Organization (WHO). 2009. Avian Influenza – situation in Indonesia ( updated 22 January 2009 cited 8 June 2009) Available from :

Nicholson KG, Webster RG, Hay AJ. Text Book of Infl uenza. Blackwell Science Ltd. London. 1998. p:194

Peiris JSM, De Jong MD, Guan Y. Avian Infl uenza Virus (H5N1): a Threat to Human Health. Clin Microbiol. 2007;20(2): 243-67

Hayden FG, Palese P. Infl uenza Virus. In: Richman, D.D., R.J. Whitley, and F.G. Hayden. Clinical Virology 2nd ed. ASM Press. Washington. 2002. p:904

Kaji M, Watanabe A, Aizawa H. Differences in clinical features between infl uenza A H1N1, A H3N2, and B in adult patients. Respirology. 2003; 8(2):231-3

Persing DH, Tenover FC, Versalovic J, Tang YW, Unger ER, Relman DA, et al. Molecular Microbiology. Diagnostic Principles and Practice. ASM Press. Washington. 2004. pp : 71-3

Simonsen L, Fukuda K, Schonberger LB, Cox NJ. The Impact of Infl uenza Epidemics on Hospitalizations. J Inf Dis. 2000; 181:831-7

Beckett CG, Kosasih H, Ma'roef C, Listiyaningsih E, Elyazar IR, Wuryadi S, et al. 2004. Infl uenza Surveillance in Indonesia : 1999-2003. Clin Infect Dis. 2004. 39:443-9

How to Cite
Ramadhany R, Setiawaty V, Wibowo HA, Lokida D. Proportion of influenza cases in severe acute respiratory illness in Indonesia during 2008-2009. Med J Indones [Internet]. 2010Nov.1 [cited 2024Feb.29];19(4):264-7. Available from:
Community Research

Most read articles by the same author(s)