Insights into the association between smoking and obesity: the 2014 Indonesian Family Life Survey

  • Yusuf Syaeful Nawawi Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia
  • Afsheen Hasan Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, United States of America
  • Liza Salawati Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia
  • Husnah Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia; Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh
  • Widiastuti Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia
Keywords: Indonesian Family Life Survey 2014, obesity, smoking


BACKGROUND Various findings on the relationship between smoking and obesity have been demonstrated. This study aimed to investigate the association between smoking behavior and obesity in the Indonesian adult population.

METHODS A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from the 2014 Indonesian Family Life Survey. A body mass index of ≥25 kg/m² was employed to define obesity. Smoking behavior was assessed in terms of smoking status and its attributes. The potential confounders of gender, age, education, residential environment, economic status, physical activity, and education level were adjusted using logistic regression.

RESULTS Study subjects were 28,949 adults aged ≥20 years. Current smoking was a protective factor of obesity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.48–0.58), whereas previous smoking habit showed no association with obesity (aOR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.84–1.09). The risk of current smokers having obesity was lower than that of nonsmokers as smoking duration increased (aOR = 0.46–0.63). By contrast, the risk of obesity was relatively higher among former smokers than current smokers as the duration of quitting increased (aOR = 1.46–2.20). Heavy smokers had a higher risk of obesity than light smokers among former (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.27–2.67) and current smokers (aOR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.23–1.65).

CONCLUSIONS Overall, smoking negatively affected obesity among the Indonesian adult population. By contrast, quitting smoking was associated with an increased risk of obesity. Thus, weight management along with smoking cessation intervention should be prescribed.


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How to Cite
Nawawi YS, Hasan A, Salawati L, Husnah, Widiastuti. Insights into the association between smoking and obesity: the 2014 Indonesian Family Life Survey. Med J Indones [Internet]. 2020Jul.1 [cited 2023Dec.7];29(2):213-21. Available from:
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