Continuous exposure of three successive generations of mice to electromagnetic fields: implication on double minute frequency
Background: Epidemiological studies indicate increased risk of leukemia, lymphoma, and brain tumor among electricalÂ workers exposed to electromagnetic field (EMF). Other investigator reported that continuous exposure of four successiveÂ generations of mice to EMF in doses of 1 kV to 5 kV caused tumor formation in offspring. The objective of this study was toÂ evaluate the effect of continuous exposure of three successive generations of mice (Mus musculus L) to EMF of 3 kV, 4 kV, andÂ 5 kV and its implication of chromosomal breakage, as detected by double minute formation.
Methods: Four couples of mice of Swiss Webster strain, 3-4 months of age, and 7-40 gram of body weight were exposed toÂ EMF at the doses of 3 kV, 4 kV, and 5 kV, and one couple served as control. Double minute formation was examined in allÂ offspring, except one couple of each group to be exposed with the same doses of EMF to get the F2 generation, and so forthÂ until F3 generation. Twenty metaphases of chromosomes were examined and frequencies of double minute were calculated inÂ the three generations of all group.
Results: Frequencies of double minute in F1, F2, and F3 of mice exposed to EMF of 3 kV were respectively 0.78Â Â±Â 0.08;Â 0.83Â Â±Â 0.09; and 0.80Â Â±Â 0.05. In the 4 kV group were 0.083Â Â±Â 0.11; 0.73Â Â±Â 0.03; and 0.96Â Â±Â 0.15, and in the 5 kV group wereÂ 0.96Â Â±Â 0.25; 0.75Â Â±Â 0.05; and 0.99Â Â±Â 0.33, whereas no double minute chromosomes were noted in control group. Frequencies ofÂ the double minute in mice exposed to EMF were significantly higher than control group.
Conclusions: Continuous exposure of mice during three successive generations to EMF at doses of 3 kV, 4 kV, and 5 kV causesÂ increased chromosomal breakage as detected as double minute chromosome formation. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:109-13)
Keywords: chromosomal breakage, double minute, electromagnetic field, mice
Copyright (c) 2011 Puji Sari, Asmarinah Asmarinah, Oentoeng Soeradi, Raden Susworo
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with Medical Journal of Indonesia agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant Medical Journal of Indonesia right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License that allows others to remix, adapt, build upon the work non-commercially with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in Medical Journal of Indonesia.
- Authors are permitted to copy and redistribute the journal's published version of the work non-commercially (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in Medical Journal of Indonesia.