Comparison of fracture site callus with iliac crest bone marrow as the source of plastic-adherent cells

  • Achmad Zaki
  • Ismail H. D.
Keywords: Bone marrow, fracture site callus, iliac crest, long bone, mesenchymal stem cell, plastic-adherent cells
Abstract viewed: 1237 times
PDF downloaded: 445 times


Background: Red marrow has been described as the main source of mesenchymal stem cells although its aspiration and isolation from bone marrow was reported to have significant donor site morbidity. Since secondary bone healing occurs through formation of callus as the result of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, callus may become alternative source for mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we compared the number of plastic-adherent cells from fracture site callus and bone marrow of iliac crest after two and four weeks of culture.

Methods: Sixteen New Zealand rabbits were fracturized at the femoral shaft. Then, these rabbits were taken care. After two weeks of fracturization, 3 mL iliac crest bone marrow aspiration and callus extraction of eight rabbits were cultured (group I). The other eight rabbits were treated equally after four weeks of fracturization (group II). Simultaneously, the cultures were observed after one and two weeks. Four weeks later, they were harvested. Cells were counted using Neubauer hemocytometer. The average number of cells between the sources and groups were statistically analyzed using the unpaired t-test.

Results: In group I, there were 2.6±0.1 x 104 cells in the culture of iliac crest bone marrow aspirate and 2.5 ± 0.1 x 104 cells in culture of callus extract from fracture site (p=0.34). In group II, there were 2.7 ± 0.1 x 104 cells and 2.1 ± 0.1 x 104 cells, respectively (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Fracture site callus at the second week post-fracturization may be potential as source of plastic-adherent cells compared with iliac crest bone marrow.


  1. Lee HB, Chung YS, Heo SY, Kim NS. Augmentation of bone healing in non-union fracture using stem cell based tissue engineering in a dog: a case report. Veterinarni Med 2009;54(4):198-203.

  2. Arinzeh TL, Peter SJ, Archambault MP, et al. Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells regenerate bone in a criticalsized canine segmental defect. J Bone J Surg (As). 2003;85(10):1927-35.

  3. Phedy, Dilogo IH, Jusuf AA, Kholine E, Efendi Z. Iliac crest and femoral bone marrow as the source of plasticadherent cells. Med J Indones. 2011;20:100-4.

  4. Nork SE. Fractures of the shaft of femur. In: Bucholz RW, Heckman JD, Court-Brown CM, editors. Rockwood & Green's fractures in adults. 6th ed. Maryland: William and Wilkins; 2006. p. 1846-914.

  5. Petrisor BA, Bhandari M, Schemitsch E. Tibia and fibula fractures. In: Bucholz RW, Heckman JD, Court-Brown CM, editors. Rockwood & Greenâs fractures in adults. 7th ed. Maryland: William and Wilkins; 2010. p. 1868-928.

  6. Fibbe WE. Mesenchymal stem cells. A potential source for skeletal repair. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002;61:29-31.

  7. Cuomo AV, Virk M, Petrigliano F, Morgan EF, Lieberman JR. Mesenchimal stem cell concentration and bone repair: potential pitfalls from bench to bedside. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009;91(5):1073-83.

  8. Shekkeris AS, Jaiswal PK, Khan WS. Clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of fracture non union and bone defects. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2012;7(2):127-33.

  9. Gupta PK, Das AK, Chullikana A, Majumdar AS. Mesenchymal stem cells for cartilage repair in osteoarthritis. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2012;3(4):25.

  10. Giannotti S, Bottai V, Ghilardi M, et al. Treatment of pseudoarthrosis of the upper limb using expanded mesenchymal stem cells: a pilot study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013;17(2):224-7.

  11. Liu P, Deng Z, Han S, et al.Tissue-engineered skin containing mesenchymal stem cells improves burn wounds. Artif Organs. 2008;32(12):925-31.

  12. Patel DM, Shah J, Srivastava AS. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine. Stem Cells Int. 2013;496218.

  13. Fennema EM, Rennard AJ, Leusink A, van Blitterswijk CA, de Boer J. The effect of bone marrow aspiration strategy on the yield and quality of human mesenchymal stem cells. Acta Orthop. 2009;80(5):618-21.

  14. Rosier RN, Reynolds PR, O'Keefe RJ. Molecular and cell biology in orthopaedics. In: Buckwalter JA, Einhorn TA, Simon SR, editors. Orthopaedic basic science. 2nd ed. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2000. p. 20-76.

  15. Colleoni S, Bottani E, Tessaro I, et al. Isolation, growth and differentiation of equine mesenchymal stem cells: effect of donor, source, amount of tissue and supplementation with basic fibroblast growth factor. Vet Res Commun. 2009;33(8):811-21.

  16. Both SK, van der Muijsenber AJ, van Blitterswijk CA, de Boer J, de Bruijn JD. A rapid and efficient method for expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells. Tissue Eng. 2007;13(1):3-9.

  17. Dominici M, Le Blanc K, Mueller I, et al. Minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchimal stromal cells. The International Society for Cellular Therapy position statement. Cytotherapy 2006;8(4):315-7.

How to Cite
Zaki A, D. IH. Comparison of fracture site callus with iliac crest bone marrow as the source of plastic-adherent cells. Med J Indones [Internet]. 2013Jun.1 [cited 2022Oct.7];22(2):70-5. Available from:
Basic Medical Research