Cost of hemodialysis after coverage by national health insurance in Japan: a sharing experience with Indonesian health reform system

Tokihiko Sawada, Hirohisa Kawahara



About 50 years ago, Japan established a health insurance system covering the entire population, and started a period of rapid economic growth, similar to what is happening now in Indonesia. Although improvements in health conditions definitely contributed to the development of modern Japan, the costs of medical care became a serious burden on the economy. In this short report, we review the concept of medical care expenditure in Japan, focusing especially on end-stage renal disease, to provide suggestions to medical reform in Indonesia.


health reform system; hemodialysis

Full Text:



  1. The Jakarta Post. com [Internet]. Indonesia's healthcare spending set to expand. [updated 2013 March 30]. Available from:
  2. Prodjosudjadi W, Suhardjono A. End-stage renal disease in Indonesia: treatment development. Ethn Dis. 2009; 19(1 Suppl 1): S1-33-6
  3. Soewondo P, Ferrario A, Tahapary DL. Challenges in diabetes management in Indonesia: a literature review. Global Health.2013;9:63.
  4. The Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy [Internet]. Available from:
  5. Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Available from:
  6. Yasuhiro Tsuji. Available From:

Copyright (c) 2014 Tokihiko Sawada, Hirohisa Kawahara

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

All articles and issues in Medical Journal of Indonesia have unique DOI number registered in Crossref.