Cardiac manifestations and diagnostic imaging in pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19: a systematic review
BACKGROUND Several studies have reported pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS) cases with their cardiac manifestations, but only few studies synthesize the cardiovascular characteristics in children with PIMS-TS. However, detecting cardiac abnormalities is crucial in improving patients' outcomes and reducing mortality. This review aimed to summarize the overall symptoms, laboratory, and workup findings in PIMS-TS patients, focusing on cardiovascular manifestations.
METHODS We searched 4 medical databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, and Scielo) and 4 preprint databases (Medrxiv, Research Square, SSRN, and Biorxiv). The literature search was done on November 8, 2021. All case reports, case series, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, and possible clinical trials published from December 2020 onward that studied PIMS-TS on cardiac manifestation (aged 0–18 years) were included. Studies on multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, animal studies, and studies without full-text availability were excluded. This review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021194468).
RESULTS 59 studies were included with a total of 698 patients. The most common cardiovascular findings were the presence of cardiogenic shock (37%) and hypotension (8.5%). Almost all laboratory values were deranged. Cardiac computed tomography scan mostly showed normal results (56%), followed by cardiomegaly with pericardial effusion (14%). Electrocardiography showed normal findings (46%), ST-segment abnormalities (32%), and abnormal T wave (12%). Echocardiography findings showed left ventricle dysfunction (40.6%), which can be considered most significant, followed by pericardial effusion together with pericarditis (11.4%) and tricuspid regurgitation (6.9%).
CONCLUSIONS This review found various cardiac abnormalities that may develop during PIMS-TS. Due to these findings, we should be more vigilant and not underestimate the consequences in pediatric COVID-19 patients.
World Health Organization. WHO coronavirus (COVID-19) dashboard [Internet]. World Health Organization; 2021 [cited 2021 Jul 29]. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/.
Pudjiadi AH, Putri ND, Sjakti HA, Yanuarso PB, Gunardi H, Roeslani RD, et al. Pediatric COVID-19: report from Indonesian Pediatric Society Data Registry. Front Pediatr. 2021;9:716898. https://doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.716898
Zimmermann P, Curtis N. Why is COVID-19 less severe in children? A review of the proposed mechanisms underlying the age-related difference in severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Arch Dis Child. 2021;106:429-39. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2020-320338
Zimmermann P, Curtis N. Coronavirus infections in children including COVID-19: an overview of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention options in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020;39(5):355-68. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002660
Bhopal SS, Bagaria J, Olabi B, Bhopal R. Children and young people remain at low risk of COVID-19 mortality. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2021;5(5):e12-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(21)00066-3
Fernández-Sarmiento J, De Souza D, Jabornisky R, Gonzalez GA, Arias López MDP, Palacio G. Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS): a narrative review and the viewpoint of the Latin American Society of Pediatric Intensive Care (SLACIP) Sepsis Committee. BMJ Paediatr Open. 2021;5(1):e000894. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjpo-2020-000894
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Information for healthcare providers about multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 3]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/mis/hcp/index.html.
World Health Organization. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents temporally related to COVID-19 [Internet]. World Health Organization; 2020 [cited 2021 Jul 29]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/multisystem-inflammatory-syndrome-in-children-and-adolescents-with-covid-19.
Royal Collage of Paediatrics and Child Health. Paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS) - guidance for clinicians [Internet]. Royal Collage of Paediatrics and Child Health; 2020 [cited 2021 Jul 29]. Available from: https://www.rcpch.ac.uk/resources/paediatric-multisystem-inflammatory-syndrome-temporally-associated-covid-19-pims-guidance.
Godfred-Cato S, Bryant B, Leung J, Oster ME, Conklin L, Abrams J, et al. COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children - United States, March-July 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(32):1074-80. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6932e2
Feldstein LR, Tenforde MW, Friedman KG, Newhams M, Rose EB, Dapul H, et al. Characteristics and outcomes of US children and adolescents with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) compared with severe acute COVID-19. JAMA. 2021;325(11):1074-87. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.2091
Feldstein LR, Rose EB, Horwitz SM, Collins JP, Newhams MM, Son MBF, et al. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in U.S. children and adolescents. N Engl J Med. 2020;383:334-46. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2021680
Carfì A, Bernabei R, Landi F; Gemelli Against COVID-19 Post-Acute Care Study Group. Persistent symptoms in patients after acute COVID-19. JAMA. 2020;324(6):603-5. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.12603
Rodriguez-Gonzalez M, Castellano-Martinez A, Cascales-Poyatos HM, Perez-Reviriego AA. Cardiovascular impact of COVID-19 with a focus on children: a systematic review. World J Clin Cases. 2020;8(21):5250-83. https://doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i21.5250
Ramcharan T, Nolan O, Lai CY, Prabhu N, Krishnamurthy R, Richter AG, et al. Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome: temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS): cardiac features, management and short-term outcomes at a UK Tertiary Paediatric Hospital. Pediatr Cardiol. 2020;41(7):1391-401. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00246-020-02391-2
Prieto LM, Toral B, LLorente A, Coca D, Blázquez-Gamero D. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children with pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 and heart dysfunction. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020;27(4):648-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.10.005
Belhadjer Z, Méot M, Bajolle F, Khraiche D, Legendre A, Abakka S, et al. Acute heart failure in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in the context of global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Circulation. 2020;142(5):429-36. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.048360
Acevedo L, Piñeres-Olave BE, Niño-Serna LF, Vega LM, Gomez IJA, Chacón S, et al. Mortality and clinical characteristics of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with covid-19 in critically ill patients: an observational multicenter study (MISCO study). BMC Pediatr. 2021;21(1):516. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02974-9
Page MJ, McKenzie JE, Bossuyt PM, Boutron I, Hoffmann TC, Mulrow CD, et al. The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. BMJ. 2021;372:n71. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n71
Joanna Briggs Institute. The Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools for use in JBI systematic reviews: checklists for case reports [Internet]. Joanna Briggs Institute; 2019 [cited 2021 Jul 18]. Available from: https://jbi.global/sites/default/files/2019-05/JBI_Critical_Appraisal-Checklist_for_Case_Reports2017_0.pdf.
Wells GA, Shea B, O'Connell D, Peterson J, Welch V, Losos M, et al. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses [Internet]. The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute; 2014. Available from: http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp.
Wan X, Wang W, Liu J, Tong T. Estimating the sample mean and standard deviation from the sample size, median, range and/or interquartile range. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2014;14:135. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-14-135
Kliegman RM, Geme J St., Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, et al. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2020.
Pagana DK, Pagana TJ, Pagana TN. Mosby's diagnostic and laboratory test reference. 12th ed. Botkin C, Bowlder NC, Burd EM, Chavalitdhamrong D, Demers LM, Hollensead SC, et al., editors. St. Louis: Elsevier; 2015.
Calò Carducci FI, De Ioris MA, Agrati C, Carsetti R, Perrotta D, D'Argenio P, et al. Hyperinflammation in two severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-infected adolescents successfully treated with the interleukin-1 inhibitor anakinra and glucocorticoids. Front Pediatr. 2020;8:576912. https://doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.576912
Dhanalakshmi K, Venkataraman A, Balasubramanian S, Madhusudan M, Amperayani S, Putilibai S, et al. Epidemiological and clinical profile of pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome - temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) in Indian children. Indian Pediatr. 2020;57(11):1010-4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13312-020-2025-1
Abrams JY, Godfred-Cato SE, Oster ME, Chow EJ, Koumans EH, Bryant B, et al. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: a systematic review. J Pediatr. 2020;226:45-54.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.08.003
Shulman ST. Pediatric coronavirus disease-2019-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020;9(3):285-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piaa062
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Kawasaki disease (KD) [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2020 [cited 2021 Aug 20]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/kawasaki/index.html.
Newburger J, Takahashi M, Burns J. Kawasaki disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67(14):1738-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2015.12.073
Ramphul K, Mejias SG. Kawasaki disease: a comprehensive review. Arch Med Sci Atheroscler Dis. 2018;3:e41-5. https://doi.org/10.5114/amsad.2018.74522
Elias MD, McCrindle BW, Larios G, Choueiter NF, Dahdah N, Harahsheh AS, et al. Management of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with COVID-19: a survey from the international kawasaki disease registry. CJC Open. 2020;2(6):632-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjco.2020.09.004
Consiglio CR, Cotugno N, Sardh F, Pou C, Amodio D, Rodriguez L, et al. The immunology of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children with COVID-19. Cell. 2020;183(4):968-81.e7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.016
Kaushik A, Gupta S, Sood M, Sharma S, Verma S. A systematic review of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020;39(11):e340-6. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002888
Rowley AH, Shulman ST, Arditi M. Immune pathogenesis of COVID-19-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. J Clin Invest. 2020;130(11):5619-21. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI143840
Ahmed M, Advani S, Moreira A, Zoretic S, Martinez J, Chorath K, et al. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: a systematic review. EClinicalMedicine. 2020;26:100527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100527
Radia T, Williams N, Agrawal P, Harman K, Weale J, Cook J, et al. Multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children & adolescents (MIS-C): a systematic review of clinical features and presentation. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2021;38:51-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prrv.2020.08.001
Alsaied T, Tremoulet AH, Burns JC, Saidi A, Dionne A, Lang SM, et al. Review of cardiac involvement in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Circulation. 2020;143(1):78-88. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.049836
Henrina J, Putra ICS, Lawrensia S, Marta DS, Wijaya E, Saboe A, et al. Cardiac manifestations, treatment characteristics, and outcomes of paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2: a systematic review. Prog Pediatr Cardiol. 2021;63:101365.
Sanil Y, Misra A, Safa R, Blake JM, Eddine AC, Balakrishnan P, et al. Echocardiographic indicators associated with adverse clinical course and cardiac sequelae in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children with coronavirus disease 2019. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2021;34(8):862-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2021.04.018
Baptist Health. Left-sided heart failure [Internet]. Louisville: Baptist Health; 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 20]. Available from: https://www.baptisthealth.com/services/heart-care/conditions/left-sided-heart-failure.
de Farias ECF, Pedro Piva J, de Mello MLFMF, do Nascimento LMPP, Costa CC, Machado MMM, et al. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with coronavirus disease in children: a multi-centered study in Belém, Pará, Brazil. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020;39(11):e374-6. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002865
Penner J, Abdel-Mannan O, Grant K, Maillard S, Kucera F, Hassell J, et al. 6-month multidisciplinary follow-up and outcomes of patients with paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS-TS) at a UK tertiary paediatric hospital: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2021;5(7):473-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(21)00138-3
Jhaveri S, Ahluwalia N, Kaushik S, Trachtman R, Kowalsky S, Aydin S, et al. Longitudinal echocardiographic assessment of coronary arteries and left ventricular function following multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. J Pediatr. 2021;228:290-3.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.08.002
Kaushik S, Aydin SI, Derespina KR, Bansal PB, Kowalsky S, Trachtman R, et al. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (MIS-C): a multi-institutional study from New York City. J Pediatr. 2020;224:24-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.06.045
Grimaud M, Starck J, Levy M, Marais C, Chareyre J, Khraiche D, et al. Acute myocarditis and multisystem inflammatory emerging disease following SARS-CoV-2 infection in critically ill children. Ann Intensive Care. 2020;10:69. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13613-020-00690-8
Lee PY, Day-Lewis M, Henderson LA, Friedman KG, Lo J, Roberts JE, et al. Distinct clinical and immunological features of SARS-CoV-2-induced multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. J Clin Invest. 2020;130(11):5942-50. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI141113
Biko DM, Ramirez-Suarez KI, Barrera CA, Banerjee A, Matsubara D, Kaplan SL, et al. Imaging of children with COVID-19: experience from a tertiary children's hospital in the United States. Pediatr Radiol. 2020;51(2):239-47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00247-020-04830-x
Blumfield E, Levin TL, Kurian J, Lee EY, Liszewski MC. Imaging findings in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2021;216(2):507-17. https://doi.org/10.2214/AJR.20.24032
Cheung EW, Zachariah P, Gorelik M, Boneparth A, Kernie SG, Orange JS, et al. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome related to COVID-19 in previously healthy children and adolescents in New York City. JAMA. 2020;324(3):294-6. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.10374
Matsubara D, Kauffman HL, Wang Y, Calderon-Anyosa R, Nadaraj S, Elias MD, et al. Echocardiographic findings in pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 in the United States. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020;76(17):1947-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.08.056
Mamishi S, Movahedi Z, Mohammadi M, Ziaee V, Khodabandeh M, Abdolsalehi MR, et al. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 45 children: a first report from Iran. Epidemiol Infect. 2020;148:e196. https://doi.org/10.1017/S095026882000196X
Bartoszek M, Małek ŁA, Barczuk-Falęcka M, Brzewski M. Cardiac magnetic resonance follow-up of children after pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 with initial cardiac involvement. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2021:10.1002/jmri.2787. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27870
Pouletty M, Borocco C, Ouldali N, Caseris M, Basmaci R, Lachaume N, et al. Paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 mimicking Kawasaki disease (Kawa-COVID-19): a multicentre cohort. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020;79(8):999-1006. https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217960
Riollano-Cruz M, Akkoyun E, Briceno-Brito E, Kowalsky S, Reed J, Posada R, et al. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children related to COVID-19: a New York City experience. J Med Virol. 2020;93(1):424-33. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26224
Davies P, Evans C, Kanthimathinathan HK, Lillie J, Brierley J, Waters G, et al. Intensive care admissions of children with paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) in the UK: a multicentre observational study. Lancet Child Adolesc Heal. 2020;4(9):669-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30215-7
Torres JP, Izquierdo G, Acuña M, Pavez D, Reyes F, Fritis A, et al. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C): report of the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cases in Santiago de Chile during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;100:75-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.062
Darren A, Osman M, Masilamani K, Habib Ali S, Kanthimathinathan HK, Chikermane A, et al. Vitamin D status of children with paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (PIMS-TS). Br J Nutr. 2021:1-26. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521001562
Ng KF, Kothari T, Bandi S, Bird PW, Goyal K, Zoha M, et al. COVID-19 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in three teenagers with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. J Med Virol. 2020;92(11):2880-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26206
Paolino J, Williams DA. Peripheral blood smears of children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome demonstrate prominence of early myeloid forms with morphologic evidence of toxic change. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2021;68(1):e28551. https://doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28551
Harwood R, Partridge R, Minford J, Almond S. Paediatric abdominal pain in the time of COVID-19: a new diagnostic dilemma. J Surg Case Reports. 2020;2020(9):rjaa337. https://doi.org/10.1093/jscr/rjaa337
Lishman J, Kohler C, de Vos C, van der Zalm MM, Itana J, Redfern A, et al. Acute appendicitis in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children with COVID-19. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020;39(12):472-3. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002900
Dallan C, Romano F, Siebert J, Politi S, Lacroix L, Sahyoun C. Septic shock presentation in adolescents with COVID-19. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2020;4(7):e21-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30164-4
Wolfler A, Mannarino S, Giacomet V, Camporesi A, Zuccotti G. Acute myocardial injury: a novel clinical pattern in children with COVID-19. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2020;4(8):e26-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30168-1
Rogo T, Mathur K, Purswani M. Systemic inflammation with cardiac involvement in pediatric patients with evidence of COVID-19 in a community hospital in the Bronx, New York. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020;9(4):502-3. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piaa087
Shahbaznejad L, Navaeifar MR, Abbaskhanian A, Hosseinzadeh F, Rahimzadeh G, Rezai MS. Clinical characteristics of 10 children with a pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome associated with COVID-19 in Iran. BMC Pediatr. 2020;20(1):513. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02415-z
Nathan N, Prevost B, Sileo C, Richard N, Berdah L, Thouvenin G, et al. The wide spectrum of COVID-19 clinical presentation in children. J Clin Med. 2020;9(9):2950. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092950
Wehl G, Franke J, Frühwirth M, Edlinger M, Rauchenzauner M. Successful treatment of pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS) with split doses of immunoglobulin G and estimation of PIMS-TS incidence in a county district in southern Germany. Healthcare (Basel). 2021;9(4):481. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040481
Mehta R, Ghosh S, Nandy J, Das S, Chattopadhyay A. Atypical presentation of complete heart block in children with pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome: a case series of two patients. Ann Pediatr Cardiol. 2021;14(3):408-11. https://doi.org/10.4103/apc.apc_96_21
Mukund, Sharma M, Mehta A, Kumar A, Bhat V. Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 - an emerging problem of PICU: a case series. J Pediatr Crit Care. 2020;7(5):271-5. https://doi.org/10.4103/JPCC.JPCC_120_20
Capone CA, Subramony A, Sweberg T, Schneider J, Shah S, Rubin L, et al. Characteristics, cardiac involvement, and outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome of childhood associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. J Pediatr. 2020;224:141-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.06.044
Whittaker E, Bamford A, Kenny J, Kaforou M, Jones CE, Shah P, et al. Clinical characteristics of 58 children with a pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2. JAMA. 2020;324(3):259-69. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.10369
Blumfield E, Levin TL. COVID-19 in pediatric patients: a case series from the Bronx, NY. Pediatr Radiol. 2020;50(10):1369-74. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00247-020-04782-2
Waltuch T, Gill P, Zinns LE, Whitney R, Tokarski J, Tsung JW, et al. Features of COVID-19 post-infectious cytokine release syndrome in children presenting to the emergency department. Am J Emerg Med. 2020;38(10):2246.e3-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.05.058
Chiotos K, Bassiri H, Behrens EM, Blatz AM, Chang J, Diorio C, et al. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children during the coronavirus 2019 pandemic: a case series. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020;9(3):393-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piaa069
Patel ST, Wright H. Lessons of the month: a misunderstood teenager with paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome - temporarily associated with SARS-CoV-2 admitted under adult medicine. Clin Med (Lond). 2021;21(1):e96-9. https://doi.org/10.7861/clinmed.2020-0821
Gupta YK, Shenoy S, Paike K, Tudu MN. Severe Paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome (PIMS) in a 23 months old baby post COVID-19 effectively managed with IVIG and pulse steroid: case report. Res Sq. 2020;1-4. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-68719/v1
Rauf A, Vijayan A, John ST, Krishnan R, Latheef A. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome with features of atypical kawasaki disease during COVID-19 pandemic. Indian J Pediatr. 2020;87(9):745-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03357-1
Gupta A, Gill A, Sharma M, Garg M. Multi-system inflammatory syndrome in a child mimicking kawasaki disease. J Trop Pediatr. 2021;67(3):fmaa060. https://doi.org/10.1093/tropej/fmaa060
Balasubramanian S, Nagendran TM, Ramachandran B, Ramanan A V. Hyper-inflammatory syndrome in a child with COVID-19 treated successfully with intravenous immunoglobulin and tocilizumab. Indian Pediatr. 2020;57(7):681-3. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13312-020-1901-z
Schneider DT, Pütz-Dolderer J, Berrang J. Pediatric multisystemic inflammatory syndrome associated With SARS-CoV-2 infection. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2020;117(25):431. https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2020.0431
Orlanski-Meyer E, Yogev D, Auerbach A, Megged O, Glikman D, Hashkes PJ, et al. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 in an 8-week old infant. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020;9(6):781-4. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piaa137
Masih M, Moll S, Raza N. Paediatric case of prolonged COVID-19 manifesting as PMIS-TS and atypical Kawasaki. BMJ Case Rep. 2020;13(9):e237194. https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-237194
Meredith J, Khedim CA, Henderson P, Wilson DC, Russell RK. Infliximab attenuates paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome in SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS). Preprints 2020, 2020060118. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202006.0118.v1
Ghatasheh G, Al Dhanhani H, Goyal A, Noureddin MB, Al Awaad D, Peerwani Z. COVID-19-related giant coronary aneurysms in an infant with multisystem inflammatory disorder in children: the first case report from the United Arab Emirates and the Arab region. Case Rep Infect Dis. 2021;2021:8872412. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8872412
Dasgupta K, Finch SE. A case of pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 in South Dakota. S D Med. 2020;73(6):246-51.
Klocperk A, Parackova Z, Dissou J, Malcova H, Pavlicek P, Vymazal T, et al. Case report: systemic inflammatory response and fast recovery in a pediatric patient with COVID-19. Front Immunol. 2020;11:1665. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01665
Yozgat CY, Uzuner S, Bursal Duramaz B, Yozgat Y, Erenberk U, Iscan A, et al. Dermatological manifestation of pediatrics multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 in a 3-year-old girl. Dermatol Ther. 2020;33(4):e13770. https://doi.org/10.1111/dth.13770
Regev T, Antemi M, Eytan D, Shachor-Meyouhas Y, Illivitzki A, Aviel Y, et al. Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome with central nervous system involvement and hypocomplementemia following SARS-COV-2 infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020;39(8):e206-7. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002804
Hutchison L, Plichta AM, Lerea Y, Madora M, Ushay HM. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in an adolescent boy with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Psychosomatics. 2020;61(6):739-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psym.2020.06.015
Rodriguez-Gonzalez M, Rodríguez-Campoy P, Sánchez-Códez M, Gutiérrez-Rosa I, Castellano-Martinez A, Rodríguez-Benítez A. New onset severe right ventricular failure associated with COVID-19 in a young infant without previous heart disease. Cardiol Young. 2020;30(9):1346-9. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1047951120001857
Niño-Taravilla C, Espinosa-Vielma YP, Otaola-Arca H, Poli-Harlowe C, Tapia LI, Ortiz-Fritz P. Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 treated with tocilizumab. Pediatr Rep. 2020;12(3):142-8. https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric12030029
Bahrami A, Vafapour M, Moazzami B, Rezaei N. Hyperinflammatory shock related to COVID-19 in a patient presenting with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: first case from Iran. J Paediatr Child Health. 2021;57(6):922-5. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpc.15048
Carraro M, Rocha Rodrigues B, Rodrigues Jr. V. Case report: multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with SARS-CoV-2 with coronary involvement. Arch Clin Biomed Res. 2020;4(6):760-5. https://doi.org/10.26502/acbr.50170141
Buosenso D, Di Sante G, Sali M; CURE COVID-19 Study Group. Cytokine profile in an adolescent with pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally related to COVID-19. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020;39(8):e213-5. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002802
Richardson KL, Jain A, Evans J, Uzun O. Giant coronary artery aneurysm as a feature of coronavirus-related inflammatory syndrome. BMJ Case Rep. 2021;14(7):e238740. https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-238740
Copyright (c) 2022 Gilbert Sterling Octavius, Ricardo Tan, Teodorus Alfons Pratama, Charista Lydia Budiputri, Fellisa Meliani, Rivaldo Steven Heriyanto, Rusli Muljadi, Andry Juliansen
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with Medical Journal of Indonesia agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant Medical Journal of Indonesia right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License that allows others to remix, adapt, build upon the work non-commercially with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in Medical Journal of Indonesia.
- Authors are permitted to copy and redistribute the journal's published version of the work non-commercially (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in Medical Journal of Indonesia.