Cardiac manifestations and diagnostic imaging in pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19: a systematic review

Keywords: cardiovascular, COVID-19, echocardiography, pediatrics, PIMS-TS
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Abstract

BACKGROUND Several studies have reported pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS) cases with their cardiac manifestations, but only few studies synthesize the cardiovascular characteristics in children with PIMS-TS. However, detecting cardiac abnormalities is crucial in improving patients' outcomes and reducing mortality. This review aimed to summarize the overall symptoms, laboratory, and workup findings in PIMS-TS patients, focusing on cardiovascular manifestations.

METHODS We searched 4 medical databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, and Scielo) and 4 preprint databases (Medrxiv, Research Square, SSRN, and Biorxiv). The literature search was done on November 8, 2021. All case reports, case series, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, and possible clinical trials published from December 2020 onward that studied PIMS-TS on cardiac manifestation (aged 0–18 years) were included. Studies on multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, animal studies, and studies without full-text availability were excluded. This review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021194468).

RESULTS 59 studies were included with a total of 698 patients. The most common cardiovascular findings were the presence of cardiogenic shock (37%) and hypotension (8.5%). Almost all laboratory values were deranged. Cardiac computed tomography scan mostly showed normal results (56%), followed by cardiomegaly with pericardial effusion (14%). Electrocardiography showed normal findings (46%), ST-segment abnormalities (32%), and abnormal T wave (12%). Echocardiography findings showed left ventricle dysfunction (40.6%), which can be considered most significant, followed by pericardial effusion together with pericarditis (11.4%) and tricuspid regurgitation (6.9%).

CONCLUSIONS This review found various cardiac abnormalities that may develop during PIMS-TS. Due to these findings, we should be more vigilant and not underestimate the consequences in pediatric COVID-19 patients.

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Published
2022-03-08
How to Cite
1.
Octavius GS, Tan R, Pratama TA, Budiputri CL, Meliani F, Heriyanto RS, Muljadi R, Juliansen A. Cardiac manifestations and diagnostic imaging in pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19: a systematic review. Med J Indones [Internet]. 2022Mar.8 [cited 2022May19];31(1):20-7. Available from: https://mji.ui.ac.id/journal/index.php/mji/article/view/5754
Section
Clinical Research

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