Comparison of the effects of treadmill and ergocycle exercise on the functional capacity and quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Helena Turnip, Anita Ratnawati, Angela Tulaar, Faisal Yunus, Aria Kekalih



Background: Physical excercises are hoped to improve functional capacity and quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study is aimed to assess the differences between treadmill and ergocycle exercise on changes in functional capacity and quality of life in patients with stable COPD.

Methods: This is an experimental study with complete randomization and repeated pre- and post-intervention observation. The study was conducted on 44 subjects with COPD who were presented at Persahabatan Hospital, Medical Rehabilitation Clinic, consisting of 22 subjects undergoing ergocycle exercise and 22 subjects undergoing treadmill exercise test. Functional capacity was assessed by using the 6 minutes walking test (6 MWT) performed at week I, V and IX. Quality of life was measured using the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) at week I and IX. Training program was conducted for 8 weeks with exercise dosage based on the results of exercise test on week I.

Results: Treadmill and ergocycle exercise produce significant improvement in both the 6 MWT and SGRQ test since week I to IX. But in comparison, treadmill exercise improves 6 MWT distance better than ergocycle consistently at week I-V, V-IX and I-IX (p < 0.001). For the SGRQ score, both exercises did not differ significantly.

Conclusion: Treadmill exercise is associated with significantly better improvement in functional capacity compared to ergocycle exercise in stable COPD subjects. Concerning quality of life, both exercises gave an equivalent improvement in stable COPD subjects.

Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ergocycle exercise, functional capacity, treadmill exercise, quality of life

Full Text:



  1. Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 1022/Menkes/SK/XI/2008. Tentang pedoman pengendalian penyakit paru obstruktif kronik. Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, 2008. p. 4-7. Indonesian.
  2. Holtgrefe K, Glenn MT. Therapeutic exercise foundation and technique. In: Kisner C, Colby LA, editors. Principles of aerobic exercise, 5th ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company; 2007. p. 231-49.
  3. Cooper CB. Pulmonary disease: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In: Durstine JL, Moore GE, Painter PL, Roberts SO, editors. ACSM’S exercise management for Persons with chronic disease and disability, 5th ed. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2009. p. 129-35.
  4. Gordon NF. Breathing disorder your complete exercise guide (The cooper clinic and research institute fitness series). Champaign: Human Kinetics; 1993.
  5. Finnerty JP, Keeping I, Bullough I, Jones J. The effectiveness of outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic lung disease: a randomized controlled trial. Chest. 2001;119(6):1705-10.
  6. Bendstrup KE, Ingemann Jensen J, Holm S, Bengtsson B. Outpatient rehabilitation improves activities of daily living, quality of life and exercise tolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J. 1997;10(12):2801-6.
  7. Lacase Y, Wong E, Guyat GH, King D, Cook DJ. Goldstein RS. Meta-analysis of respiratory rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lancet. 1996;348(9035):1115-9.
  8. Redelmeier DA, Bayoumi AM, Goldstein RS, Guyatt GH. Interpreting small differences in functional lung status: the six minute walk test in chronic lung disease patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;155(4):1278-82.
  9. Güell R, Casan P, Belda J, Sangenis M, Morante F, Guyatt GH, et al. Long-term effects of outpatient rehabilitation of COPD: A randomized trial. Chest. 2000;117(4):976-83.
  10. Murray JA, Waterman LA, Ward J, Baird JC, Mahler DA. Perceptual and physiologic responses during treadmill and cycle exercise in patients with COPD. Chest. 2009;135(2);384-90.
  11. Carter H, Jones AM, Barstow TJ, Burnley M, Williams CA, Doust JH. Oxygen uptake kinetics in treadmill running and cycle ergometry: a comparison. J Appl Physiol. 2000;89(3):899-907.
  12. Palange P, Forte S, Onorati P, Manfredi F, Serra P, Carlone S. Ventilatory and metabolic adaptations to walking and cycling in patients with COPD. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88(5):1715-20.
  13. Sava F, Laviolette L, Bernard S, Breton MJ, Bourbeau J, Maltais F. The impact of obesity on walking and cycling performance and response to pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD. BMC Pulm Med. 2010;10:55.
  14. Yuarsa TA, Yunus FA, Antariksa B. Korelasi penilaian kualitas hidup dan prognosis penderita PPOK dengan CAT, SGRQ dan BODE di RSP Jakarta. J Respir Indo. 2013;33:8-16. Indonesian.
  15. Weatherall M, Marsh S, Shirtcliffe P, Williams M, Travers J, Beasley R. Quality of life measured by the St George’s respiratory questionnaire and spirometry. Eur Respir J. 2009;33(5):1025-30.
  16. Gold Committee. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of COPD. Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease, 2010. p. 1-12.
  17. Donner CF, Muir JF. Selection criteria and programmes for pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD patients. Eur Respir J. 1997;10:744-57.
  18. Wijayakusuma D. Fisiologi pernapasan. Bagian Ilmu Faal Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia: 1- 45. Indonesian.

Copyright (c) 2014 Helena Turnip, Anita Ratnawati, Angela Tulaar, Faisal Yunus, Aria Kekalih

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

All articles and issues in Medical Journal of Indonesia have unique DOI number registered in Crossref.