Prevalence and pattern of domestic violence at the Center for Forensic Medical Services in Pekanbaru, Indonesia
Background: Domestic violence (DV) is still a significant public health problem, especially in women’s health. Few studies have reported the prevalence and domestic violence in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence, type of violence, and forensic examination on domestic violence victims in emergency departments.
Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of domestic violence victims observed in the Emergency Department at the Bhayangkara Hospital, Pekanbaru, Indonesia, between 2010 and 2014. The determinations of DV cases are based on the medico-legal reports (visum et repertum) and the police’s official inquiry letters.
Results: Out of 6,876 medico-legal injury reports of living victims were reviewed, and 755 (10,9%) cases were DV. The majority of victims in DV were women (93.8%) with childbearing age group as the highest frequency (77.9%). Most of the DV victims were housewives (67.0%). Moreover, physical assault was the most common DV types (98.7%). Bruise was the predominant type of wound among the DV victims (76.2%), and almost half of the victims had abrasions (48.1%). Head and limbs were the predominant sites of wound. Blunt injury was found in more than three-quarters of the victims (88.5%).
Conclusion: The prevalence of domestic violence was high among living victims in the emergency department, with women as the majority of victims.
García-Moreno C, Jansen HA, Ellsberg M, Heise L, Watts C. WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women Initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women's responses Full Report. World Health. 2005. p. 13–40.
Flury M, Nyberg E, Riecher-Rössler A. Domestic violence against women: Definitions, epidemiology, risk factors and consequences. Swiss Med Wkly. 2010;140(w13099):2–7. https://doi.org/10.4414/smw.2010.13099
www.who.int [Internet]. Global and regional estimates of violence against women: prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. [update 2013; cited 2017 Feb]. Available from: http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/violence/9789241564625/en/
Hegarty K. Domestic violence: the hidden epidemic associated with mental illness. Br J Psychiatry. 2011;198(3):169–70. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.110.083758
Hayati EN, Högberg U, Hakimi M, Ellsberg MC, Emmelin M. Behind the silence of harmony : risk factors for physical and sexual violence among women in rural Indonesia. BMC Women's Health. 2011;11:52. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6874-11-52
Boyle A, Todd C. Incidence and prevalence of domestic violence in a UK emergency department. Emerg Med J. 2003;20(5):438–43. https://doi.org/10.1136/emj.20.5.438
Stevenson TR, Goodall EA, Moore CB. A retrospective audit of the extent and nature of domestic violence cases identified over a three year period in the two district command units of the police service of Northern Ireland. J Forensic Leg Med. 2008;15(7):430–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2008.02.012
Bazargan-Hejazi S, Kim E, Lin J, Ahmadi A, Khamesi MT, Teruya S. Risk factors associated with different types of intimate partner violence (IPV): an Emergency Department Study. J Emerg Med. 2014;47(6):710–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2014.07.036
Babu BV, Kar SK. Domestic violence against women in eastern India: a population-based study on prevalence and related issues. BMC Public Health. 2009;9(1):129. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-9-129
Breiding MJ, Black MC, Ryan GW. Prevalence and risk factors of intimate partner violence in eighteen U.S. States/Territories, 2005. Am J Prev Med. 2008;34(2):112–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2007.10.001
Watts C, Zimmerman C. Violence against women: global scope and magnitude. Lancet. 2002;359(9313):1232–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08221-1
Carmo R, Grams A, Magalhães T. Men as victims of intimate partner violence. J Forensic Leg Med. 2011;18(8):355–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2011.07.006
Kosmidis G, Vlachomiditropoulos D, Goutas N, Spiliopoulou C. Medico-legal aspects of family violence cases in Athens, Greece. Int. J. Caring Sci. 2014;7(2):488–96.
Chan KL, Choi WM, Fong DY, Chow CB, Leung M, Ip P. Characteristics of family violence victims presenting to Emergency Departments in Hong Kong. J Emerg Med. 2013;44(1):249–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.01.061
Murty OP. Maid abuse. J Forensic Leg Med. 2009;16(5):290–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2008.12.020
www.ditjenpp.kemenkumham.go.id [Internet]. Undang-Undang Nomor 23 Tahun 2004 tentang penghapusan kekerasan dalam rumah tangga. [update 2017; cited 2017 Feb]. Available from: http://ditjenpp.kemenkumham.go.id/hukum-pidana/653-undang-undang-no-23-tahun-2004-tentang-penghapusan-kekerasan-dalam-rumah-tangga-uu-pkdrt.html
Balci YG, Ayranci U. Physical violence against women: Evaluation of women assaulted by spouses. J Clin Forensic Med. 2005;12(5):258–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcfm.2005.03.006
Copyright (c) 2017 Dedi Afandi, Mohammad T. Indrayana, Iriandanu Nugraha, Dinda Danisha
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with Medical Journal of Indonesia agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant Medical Journal of Indonesia right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License that allows others to remix, adapt, build upon the work non-commercially with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in Medical Journal of Indonesia.
- Authors are permitted to copy and redistribute the journal's published version of the work non-commercially (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in Medical Journal of Indonesia.