Myocardial damage after continuous aerobic and anaerobic exercise in rats

Rostika Flora, Frans Ferdinal, Bethy S. Hernowo, Septelia I. Wanandi, Mohamad Sadikin, Hans-Joachim Freisleben



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13181/mji.v22i4.601

Abstract


Background: Regular physical activity is highly recommended in preventive, curative, and rehabilitative programs in order to promote health, especially cardiovascular health. However, physical activity can also cause sudden death. In athletes, sudden death may occur during sport competitions, with myocardial infarction as the most common etiology. It is suspected that continuous training without any rest-day play a role in cardiac muscle damage and sudden death during competition. Our study was aimed to learn about cardiac muscle adaptation on continuous aerobic and anaerobic physical activity without any rest-day. 

Methods: The specimens in our study were cardiac muscle tissue obtained from rats that had performed aerobic and anaerobic physical activity on treadmill for 1, 3, 7, and 10 days without any rest-day. Blood gas analysis and hematological assessment were used as parameters of systemic adaptation to hypoxia during physical activity. Moreover, histopathology of cardiac muscle tissue was performed as parameter for cardiac muscle damage.

Results: The results showed that aerobic and anaerobic physical activity caused a systemic hypoxic condition and triggered adaptation responses. Cardiac muscle damage occurred on the 10th day in both treatment groups, with more severe damage observed in the group with anaerobic physical activity. The tissue protein level in the anaerobic group increased progressively on the 10th day.

Conclusion: Physical activity may result in hypoxia and systemic adaptation. Aerobic and anaerobic physical activities performed for 10 days without any rest-day may cause cardiac muscle damage. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:209-14. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i4.601)

Keywords: Cardiac muscle, cardiac muscle damage, histopathology, physical activity


Full Text:

PDF

References


  1. Flora R, Freisleben H-J, Ferdinal F, Wanadi SI, Sadikin M. Correlation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelium growth factor in rat myocardium during aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Med J Indones. 2012;21(3):133-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.13181/mji.v21i3.493
  2. Åstrand PO, Rodahl K, Dahl HA, Stromme SB. Textbook of Work Physiology. Physiological bases of exercise. 4th ed. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL; 2003. p. 237-312
  3. Kusmana D. Olahraga untuk orang sehat dan penderita penyakit jantung. 2nd ed. Jakarta: FKUI; 2006. Indonesian.
  4. Solberg EE, Gjertsen F, Haugstad E, Kolsrud L. Sudden death in sport among young adults in Norway. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2010;17(3):337-41.
  5. Quigley AF, Kapsa RM, Esmore D, Hale G, Byrne E. Mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. J Card Fail. 2000;6(1):47-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1071-9164(00)00011-7
  6. Fahrenia RR. Ekspresi Gen mioglobin dan serum kreatinfosfokinase pada aktivitas fisik aerobik dan anaerobik sebagai indikator hipoksia dan kerusakan jantung otot tikus wistar [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Universitas Padjadjaran; 2009. Indonesian.
  7. Soya H, Mukai A, Deocaris CC, Ohiwa N, Chang H, Nishijima T, et al. Threshold-like pattern of neuronal activation in the hypothalamus during treadmill running: establishment of a minimum running stress (MRS) rat model. Neurosci Res. 2007;58(4):341-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2007.04.004
  8. St John Sutton MG, Lie JT, Anderson KR, O'Brien PC, Frye RL. Histopathological specificity of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Myocardial fibre disarray and myocardial fibrosis. Br Heart J. 1980;44(4):433-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/hrt.44.4.433
  9. Flameng W, Vanhaecke J, Borgers M. Histology of the postischaemic myocardium and its relation to left ventricular function. Br J Anaesth. 1988;60:14S-22S. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bja/60.suppl_1.14S
  10. Akasaka Y, Morimoto N, Ishikawa Y, Fujita K, Ito K, Kimura-Matsumoto M, et al. Myocardial apoptosis associated with the expression of proinflammatory cytokines during the course of myocardial infarction. Mod Pathol. 2006;19(4):588-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.3800568
  11. Wilmore JH, Costill DL. Physiology of Sport and Exercise. 3rd ed. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL; 2004. p. 270-98.
  12. Hunt SA, Abraham WT, Chin MH, Feldman AM, Francis GS, Ganiats TG, et al. ACC/AHA guideline update for the diagnosis and management of chronic heart failure in the adult: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association - Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2005;112:e154-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.167586
  13. Selvetalla G, Lembo G. Mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy. Heart Fail Clin. 2005;1(2):263-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hfc.2005.03.006
  14. Montorsi P, Villa M, Dessanai MA. Temporal profile of protein release in myocardial infarction. Heart Metab. 2009;43:31-5.
  15. Brancaccio P, Maffulli N, Limongelli FM. Creatine kinase monitoring in sport medicine. Br Med Bull. 2007;81-82:209-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldm014





Copyright (c) 2013 Rostika Flora, Frans Ferdinal, Bethy S. Hernowo, Septelia I. Wanandi, Mohamad Sadikin, Hans-Joachim Freisleben

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

All articles and issues in Medical Journal of Indonesia have unique DOI number registered in Crossref.
 
Romeo
 
http://mji.ui.ac.id/journal/index.php/mji/pages/view/stat
Unique Visitors